Science - Chapter 8 Evolution

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Science - Chapter 8 Evolution
2012-05-04 17:23:06
Science Evolution

Science - Chapter 8 Evolution Review
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  1. Define evolution.
    The process where populations accumulate inherited changes over time.
  2. Define adaption and give specific examples.
    • A characteristic that helps an organism to survive and reprodue in their environment
    • An example are cactus spines
  3. What's the difference between fertile and sterile?
    • To be fertile an organism is able to produce fertile offspring
    • To be sterile an organism is unable to produce fertile offspring
  4. What two conditions are necessary for fossil formation?
    • A fine layer of sediment must cover the carcass
    • Oxygen cannot touch the bones
  5. How do fossils found in upper layers of soil differ from fossils foung in lower layers of soil?
    • Upper layered fossils look more similar to present day organisms
    • Lower layered fossils may be extinct
  6. Why don't scientists have transition fossils for all plants and animals (gaps in the fossil record)?
    • Some fossils didn't meet the necessary conditions to be fossilized
    • Some might not have been found
  7. How do transition fossils (such as those for the horse and whale) provide evidence for evolution?
    The changes in bone structures as you get farther down in the soil show evolution. Layers that are closer to each other have more in common than layers that are far apart.
  8. What is a vestigial structure?
    A structure that was once usable
  9. Give two examples of a vestigial structure from different organisms.
    • Human - tail bone, appendix
    • Whale - Hind limb
  10. How do homologous structures (appendages of human, cat, dolphin, and bat) provide evidence for evolution?
    They show how similar organisms evolved from a common ancestor. Homologous structures have different functions yet the same bone order.
  11. What are two ways that DNA provides evidence for evolution?
    • Greater similarities between organisms means they have more in common
    • All organisms have DNA
  12. How do embryos provide evidence for evolution?
    They're similar at birth but as they grow up, they look different compared to one another.
  13. What training did Darwin get in college?
    He studied to be a minister (theology)
  14. What was Darwin's job on the Beagle?
    Naturalist - someone who studies plants and animals
  15. Explain Darwin's thoughts in comparing finches he saw on the Galapagos Islands to those he saw in South America.
    They looked very similar, but not identical
  16. What is selective breeding?
    Making deliberate crosses to produce offspring with wanted characteristics.
  17. Give an example of selective breeding.
    Mule - Donkey and Horse
  18. How did selective breeding influence Darwin?
    He thought the same could happen with animals in the wild but would take much longer.
  19. What information did Charles Lyell provide about the Earth?
    It's way older than what people thought (millions, not thousands)
  20. How did Charles Lyell's information about the Earth influence Darwin?
    He realized that animal polulations changed very slowly
  21. What information did Thomas Malthus provide concerning populations?
    Humans could reproduce beyond their food supply
  22. How did Thomas Malthus' information concerning populations influence Darwin?
    He figured out that animals can do the same (reproduce beyond their food supply)
  23. How did Alfred Russell Wallace's ideas compare to Darwin's?
    They were the same
  24. What is Darwin's theory how evolution occurs?
    Natural Selection
  25. What is responsible for the genetic variations we see in organisms?
  26. What is the first step in Natural Selection? Describe it.
    Overproduction - A species produces too much offspring
  27. What is the second step in Natural Selection? Describe it.
    Genetic Variation - Individuals of a species are slightly different based on inherited traits
  28. What is the third step in Natural Selection? Describe it.
    Struggle to Survive - The environment causes struggles for a species to survive
  29. What is the fourth step in Natural Selection? Describe it.
    Successful Reproduction - The more adapted organisms are more likely to survive than the less adapted
  30. Explain an adaptation