Ap gov chap 1.txt

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Ap gov chap 1.txt
2012-05-04 11:05:53

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    • author "Me"
    • tags "Introduction to gov in the US"
    • description ""
    • fileName "Ap gov chap 1"
    • Government
    • The institutions and processes through which public policies are made for a society
  2. Public goods
    Goods, such as clean air and water, that everyone must share.
  3. Politics
    The process by which we select our governmental leaders and what policies these leaders pursue. Politics produces authoritative decisions about public issues.
  4. Political participation
    All the activities used by citizens to influence the selection of political leaders or the policies they pursue. Voting is the most common but not the only means of political participation in a democracy. Other means include protest and civil disobedience.
  5. Single-issue groups
    Groups that have a narrow interest, tend to dislike compromise, and often draw membership from people new to politics. These features distinguish them from traditional interest groups.
  6. Policymaking system
    The process by which policy comes into being and evolves over time. People's interests, problems, and concerns create political issues for government policymakers. These issues shape policy, which in turn impacts people, generating more interests, problems, and concerns.
  7. Linkage institutions
    The political channels through high people's concerns become political issues on the policy agenda. In the US, they include elections, political parties, interest groups, and the media.
  8. Policy agenda
    The issues that attract the serious attention of public officials and other people actually involved in politics at any given point in time.
  9. Political issue
    An issue that arises when people disagree about a problem and how to fix it.
  10. Policymaking institutions
    The branches of government charged with taking action on political issues. The US Constitution established three Policymaking institutions - th Congress, the presidency, and the courts. Today, the power of the bureaucracy is so great that most political scientists consider it a fourth policy making institution.
  11. Public policy
    A choice that government makes in response to a political issue. A policy is a course of action taken with regard to some problem.
  12. Democracy
    A system of selecting policymakers and organizing government so that policy represents and responds to the public's preferences.
  13. Majority rule
    A fundamental principle of traditional democratic theory. In a democracy, choosing among alternatives requires that the majority's desire be respected.
  14. Minority rights
    A principal of traditional democratic theory that guarantees rights to those who do not belong to majorities and allows that they might join majorities through persuasion and reasoned argument.
  15. Representation
    A basic principle of traditional democratic theory that describes the relationship between the few leaders and the money followers.
  16. Pluralist theory
    A theory of government and politics emphasizing that politics is mainly a competition among groups, each one pressing for its own preferred policies.
  17. Elite and class theory
    A theory of government and politics contending that the societies are divided along class lines and that an upper-class elite will rule, regardless of the formal niceties of governmental orginization
  18. Hyperpluralism
    A theory of government and politics contending that groups are so strong that government is weakened. Hype pluralism is an over extreme, exaggerated, or perverted fin of pluralism.
  19. Policy gridlock
    A condition that occurs when no coalition is strong enough to form a majority and establish policy.
  20. Political culture
    An overall set of values widely shared within a society.
  21. Traditional democratic theory
    • Includes:
    • Equality in voting, effective participation, enlightened understanding, citizen control of the agenda, inclusion.
  22. Gross domestic product
    The sum total of the values of all the services produced in a nation.