AP gov Chapter 8.txt

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AP gov Chapter 8.txt
2012-05-04 11:10:53


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    • author "Me"
    • tags "Political Parties"
    • description "Key terms "
    • fileName "AP gov Chapter 8"
    • Party competition
    • The battle of the parties for control of public offices. Ups and downs of the two major parties are one of the most important elements in American politics.
  2. More and more people are registering as _________.
    Independent. Young and immigrants.
  3. Political party
    According to Anthony Downs, a "term of men [and women] seeking to control the government apparatus by gaining office in a duly constituted election"
  4. Linkage institutions
    The channels through which people's concerns became political issues on on the government's agenda
  5. Rational choice theory
    A popular theory in political science to explain the actions of voters as well as politicians. It assumes the individuals act in their own best interest, carefully weighing cost and benefits of possible alternatives.
  6. Linkage institution examples
    • Big 3
    • 1) political parties:
    • 2) elections:
    • 3)interest groups
    • 4) media: inform us
  7. Parties responsibilities
    • A. Pick candidates
    • B. run campaigns
    • C. Give cues to voters
    • D. Articulate policies
    • E. Coordinate policy making
  8. Party images
    The voters perception of what the Republican or Democrats stand for, such as conservatism or liberalism.
  9. Anthony Downs
    Economist, (contributing editor for economist) created rational choice theory. Said political parties have specific goals: to win campaigns. They appeal to public viewpoint.
  10. Party image
    The voter's perception of what the Republicans or Democrats stand for, such as conservatism or liberalism.
  11. Party identification
    A citizen's self-proclaimed preference for one party or the other.
  12. Ticket splitting
    Voting with one party for one office and with another party for other offices. It has become the norm in America voting behavior.
  13. Party Machines
    A type of political party organization that relies heavily on material inducements, such as patronage, to win votes and govern.
  14. Patronage
    One of the key inducements see by party machines. A patronage job, promotion, or contract is one that is given for political reasons rather than for merit or competence alone.
  15. Closed primaries
    Elections to select party nominees in which only people who have registered in advance with the party's candidates, thus encouraging greater party loyalty.
  16. Open primaries
    Elections to select party nominees in which voters can decide on Election Day whether they want to participate in the Democratic or Republican contests
  17. Blanket primaries
    Elections to select party nominees in which voters are presented with a list of candidates from all parties. Voters can select some Democrats and some Republicans if they like
  18. National convention
    The meeting of party delegates every four years to choose a presidential ticket and write the party's platform.
  19. National committee
    One of the institutions that keeps the party operating between conventions. composed of representatives from the states and territories.
  20. National chairperson
    Responsible for the day-to-day activities of the party and is usually handpicked by he presidential nominee.
  21. Coalition
    A group of individuals which a common interest on which every political party depends
  22. Party eras
    Historical periods in which a majority of voters cling to the party in power, which tends to win the majority of elections.
  23. Critical election
    An electoral "earthquake" whet new issues emerge, new coalitions replace or ones, and the minority party is often displaced by the minority party. Critical election periods are sometimes marked by national crisis (i.e.. Great Depression) and may take more than one election to bring about a new party ea.
  24. Party realignment
    The displacement of the majority party by the minority part, usually during a critical election period.
  25. New deal coalition
    A coalition forged by the Democrats, who dominated American politics from the 1930s to the 1969s. It's basic elements were the urban working class, ethnic groups, Catholics and Jews, the poor, Southerners, African Americans, and intellectuals.
  26. Party dealignment
    The gradual disengagement of people and politics from parties, as seen in part my shrinking party identification.
  27. This parties (minor parties)
    Electoral contenders other than the two major parties. Americans third parties are not unusual, but they rarely win elections.
  28. Winner-take-all system
    An electoral system in which legislative seats are awarded only to the candidates who come in first in their constituencies. In American presidential elections, the system in which the winner of the popular vote in a state receives all the electoral votes of that state.
  29. Proportional representation
    An electoral system used throughout most of Europe that awards legislative seats to political parties in proportion to the number of votes won in an election.
  30. Coalition government
    • When two or more parties join together to form a majority in a national legislature .
    • This form of government is quite common in the multiparty systems of Europe.
  31. Responsible party model
    A view favored by some political scientists about how parties should work. According to the mode, parties should offer clear choices to voters, how can then use those choices as cues to their own preferences of candidates. Once in office, parties would carry out their campaign promises.
  32. Party eras
    • 1796-1824: federalist party
    • Critical Election: Democratic Republicans
    • 1828-1856: Jackson and the democrats (Whigs were opposition)
    • Critical election: slavery and state rights (Lincoln)
    • 1860-1928: two republican eras (anti slavery)
    • Critical Elections: stock market crash of 1929 (Great Depression)
    • 1932-1968: FDR and the new deal coalition
    • Critical election: vietnam
    • 1968-present: divided government, ticket splitting, causes gridlock