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Health maintenance organization
This was conractedd by individuals or insurance companies to provide health care for a yearly fee. Such network health plans limit the choice of doctors and treatments. About 60 percent of Americans are enrolled in health maintenance organizations or similar programs.
National health insurance
A compulsory insurance program for all Americans that would have the government finance citizens' medical care. First proposed by President Harry S Truman, the plan was soundly opposed by the American Medical Association.
A program added to the Social Security system in 1965 that provides hospitalization insurance for the elderly and permits older Americans to purchase inexpensive coverage for doctor fees and other medical expenses
A public assistance program designed to provide health care for poor Americans. Medicaid is funded by both the states and the national government.
Environmental Protection Agency
An agency of the federal government created in 1970 and charged with administering all the government's environmental legislation. It also administers policies dealing with toxic wastes. It is the largest federal independent regulatory agency.
Clean Air Act of 1970
The law that charged the Department of Transportation with the responsibility to reduce automobile emissions.
Water Pollution Control Act of 1972
A law intended to clean up the nation's rivers and lakes. It requires municipal, industrial, and other polluters to use pollution control technology and secure permits from the Environmental Protection Agency for discharging waste products into water.
Endangered Species Act of 1973
This law requires the federal government to potect actively each of the hundreds of species listed as endangered- regardless of the economic effect on the surrounding towns or region.
Health of Americans
- life expectancy: 77 years
- infant mortality rates: low
- but higher than other countries: why?
- Obesity, nutrition, less breaks, other countries are more active, smaller portions, don't have fast portions.
A fund created by Congress in 1980 to clean up hazardous waste sites. Money for the fund comes from taxing chemical products.
Cost of Health Care
about 1/6 of our GDP, 2.5 trillion per year.
Costs of health care have been major obstacle to balancing the federal budget and investing in the economy
Coast rise because of
- 1) Health providers have overbuild medical care facilities
- 2) New technology, drugs and procedures have added to the costs.
- 3) patients do not ask for cheaper care because they do not face the full financial consequences of their are.
- 4) increased medical costs have caused insurance rates to skyrocket.
Access to Health Care
- Vary unequal, discrepancies.
- a) 2/3 of all Americans have health care through private plans.
- b) many people contract with Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) that directly provides most of a person's health care for a yearly fee.
- c) Medicare: 1965
- d) medicaid
- 16 percent are without health year-round
- No health coverage= no primary physician (knows your condition and history)
Cost is biggest barrier to healthcare.
Link between having a job and being insured
Race and healthcare
Whites live longer, lower infant mortality, healthier on average
Government role in health care
Most countries have universal health care.
Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP)
- Partnership of federal and state that targets uninsured children and pregnant
- Others who have incomes to high to qualify for Medicaid but ate to low too afford private coverage.
Why is healthcare so expensive
- Life saving procedure= one option (most expensive)
- Elderly= most powerful lobbyists
- People want the best
- 3 poorly, unemployed- not raising the issue
Acts passed in 70s environment
clean air act, species, water act
Decade of great change in health care
60's medicare & medicaid
"Not In My BackYard" the rally of how people may support something as long as it it isn't close to them. ie prison, mine, oil rig etc.
carbon emissions (regulated with clean air act)
Says EIS (environmental impact statement) are required (1969)