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Instruments of Foreign Policy
Three types of tools are:
- Military: Patriot Act, Executive Order 9066, War Powers Act,
- Economic: embargo, sanctions, tariffs
- Diplomatic: ambassadors etc.
- Military is oldest and still used but losing much of its utility
- Economic is becoming more powerful
- Diplomatic is the quietest of the tools.
A policy that involves choice taking, like domestic policy, but additionally involves choices about relations with the rest of the world. The president is the chief initiator of foreign policy in the United States.
Created in 1945, an organization whose members agree to renounce war and to respect certain human and economic freedoms. The seat of real power in this organization is the __________.
Blank: Security Council.
Good movie to watch for national security
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
Created in 1949, a combination of nations who agreed to combine military forces and to treat a war against one as a war against all. Includes USA, Canada, Turkey, and most Western European nations.
A transnational government that coordinates monetary, trade, immigration, and labor policies, making its members one economic unit. An example of regional organization.
UN security council
Permanent members of the UN, have veto power; include USA, China, Russia, Britain, France. (there's 15 permanent members)
Secretary of State
The head of the Department of State and traditionally a key adviser to the president on foreign policy. Confirmed by the Senate
Actors on the worldstage
- International Organizations: UN, CNN
- Regional Organizations: NATO, EU, CNN
- Multinational Corporations: McDonalds, Wal-Mart
- Nongovernmental Organizations: Greenpeace, tourist organiations
- Individuals: Bill Gates
- The president, the Diplomats (Secretary of state), National Security Establishment (Secretary of defense, Joint Chiefs of Staff, NSC, CIA)
- Senate: ratifies treaty by 2/3
Secretary of defense
The head of the Department of Defense and the president's key adviser on military policy; a key foreign policy actor.
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
Created after WWII, initially created to coordinate American intelligence activities abroad. Became involved in intrigue, conspiracy, and meddling as well. Also analyzes national security policy and has more domestic agendas.
Joint Chiefs of Staff
The commanding officers of the armed services who advise the president on military policy.
Dates back to Washington. A foreign policy course followed throughout most of our nation's history whereby the US has tried to stay out of other nations' conflicts, particularly European wars. Isolationism was reaffirmed by the Monroe Doctrine. Ended after WWI
A foreign policy strategy advocated by George Kennan that called for the United States to isolate the Soviet Union, "contain" its advances, and resist its encroachments b peaceful means if possible but by force if necessary.
Containment Abroad and Anti-Communism in US. War by other than military means usually emphasizing ideological conflict, such as that between the US and the Soviet Union from the end of WWII until the 1990.
The fear, prevalent in the 1950s, that international communism was conspiratorial, insidious, bent on world domination, and infiltrating American government and cultural institutions. Flourished after the Korean War. Named after _________. (hint: look at bottom)
A tense relationship beginning in the 1950s between the Soviet Union and the United States whereby one side's weaponry became the other side's goad to procure more weaponry, and so on.
A slow transformation from conflict thinking to cooperative thinking in foreign policy strategy and policymaking. It sought a relaxation of tensions between the superpowers, coupled with firm guarantees of mutual security.
Strategic Defense Initiative
Renamed "Star Wars" by critics, a plan for defense against the Soviet Union unveiled by President Reagan in 1983. This would create a global umbrella in space, using computers to scan the skies and high-tech devices to destroy invading missiles.
Mutual dependency; in which the actions of negotiations reverberate and affect one another's economic lifeline:
A special tax added to imported goods to raise the rice, thereby protecting American businesses and workers from foreign competition.
Balance of trade
The ration of what is paid for imports to what is earned from exports. When more is imported than exported, there is a balance-of-trade deficit.
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
An economic organization consisting primarily of Arab nations that controls the price of oil and the amount of oil its members produce and sell to other nations.
During Cold War. Push opponent to the edge and back down.
Era of Détent
- Nixon championed this. Worked with Soviet Union and China.
- Strategic Arms Limitations Talks (SALT): effort to limit the growth of nuclear arms
- Detente: originally applied to the Soviet Union, and then to China)
The Reagan Rearmament
- Defense budget: had been declining since the mid-1950's, added $32 billion in first term to oppose Soviet buildup. Took from social program.
- Soviet Union: was the "evil empire"
- Spend at lot of money on Strategic Defense Initiative.
- did START treaty
The War on Terrorism
- Highest priority of George W. Bush administration after 9/11
- Bush supported preemptive strikes agains terrorists and hostile states.
- International relations has entered an era of improvisation. (START II)
Final Thaw in the Cold War
George H W Bush Proposed to move beyond containment to integrate the Soviet Union into the community of nations (START, strategic arms reduction treaty)
- 1/5 of federal budget
- Conservatives argue against budget cust that would leave the military unprepared.
- Liberals argue for budget cuts to provide more money for programs here in the US
- Military spending is hard to cut
1.4 million reserve troops
More reliance on national guard and reserve troops.
- ICBMs (intercontinentl balistic missils) ships planes
- SLBM (silo-launch balisic missils
can be effective, but can hurt people of the country and provoke backlash as well as hurt US businesses.