Chap 11 ap gov.txt

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Chap 11 ap gov.txt
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  1. 
    • author "Me"
    • tags "Interest groups"
    • description ""
    • fileName "Chap 11 ap gov"
    • Interest group
    • And organization of people with shared policy goals entering the policy process at several points to try to achieve those goals. Interest groups pursue their goals in many arenas
  2. Pluralist theory
    A theory of the government and politics emphasizing that politics is mainly a competition among groups, each one pressing for its own preferred policies
  3. Elite theory
    A theory of government and politics contending that societies are divided along class lines and that an upper-class elite will rule, regardless of the formal niceties of governmental organization.
  4. Hyperpluralist theory
    A theory of government and politics contending that groups are so strong that government is weakened. Hyperpluralism is an extreme, exaggerated, or perverted form of pluralism.
  5. Subgovernments
    A network of groups within the American political system that exercise a great deal of control over specific policy areas. Also known as iron triangles, subgovernments are composed of interest group leaders interested in a particular policy, the government agency in charge of administering that policy, and the members of congressional committees and subcommittees handling that policy.
  6. Potential group
    All the people who might be interest group members because they share some common interest. A potential group is always larger than an actual group.
  7. Actual group
    The part of the potential group consisting of members who actually join.
  8. Collective good
    Something of value (money, a tax write-off, prestige, clean air, and so on) that cannot be withheld from a group member.
  9. Free-rider problem
    The problem faced by unions and other groups when people do not join because they can benefit from the group's activities without officially joining. The bigger the group, the more serious the problem.
  10. Olson's law of large groups
    Advanced by Mancur Olson, a principal stating that "the larger the group, the further it will fall short of providing an optical amount of a collective good."
  11. Selective benefits
    Goods (such as information publications, travel discounts, and group insurance rates) that a group can restrict to those who pay their annual dues.
  12. Single-issue groups
    Groups that have a narrow interest, tend to dislike compromise, and often draw membership from people new to politics. These features distinguish them from traditional interest groups.
  13. Lobbying
    According to Lester Milbrath, a "communication, by someone other than the citizen acting on his own behalf, directed to a governmental decision maker with the hope of influencing his decision."
  14. Electioneering
    Direct group involvement and electoral process. Groups can help fund campaigns, provide testimony, and get members to work for candidates, and some form of political action committee.
  15. Political action committees (PACs)
    Political funding vehicles created by the 1974 campaign finance reforms. A corporation, Union, or some other interest group can crate a political action committee (PAC) and register it with the Federal Election Commission, which will meticulously monitor the PAC's expenditures.
  16. Amicus curiae briefs
    Legal briefs submitted by a "friend of the court" for the purpose of raising additional points of view and presenting information not contained in the briefs of the formal parties. These briefs attempt to influence the court's decision.
  17. Class action suits
    Lawsuits permitting a small number of people to sue on behalf of all other people similarly situated.
  18. Union shop
    A provision found in some collective bargaining agreements requiring all employees of a business to join the union within a short period, usually 30 days, and to remain members as a condition of employment.
  19. Right-to-work law
    A state law forbidding requirements that workers must join a union to hold their jobs. Steak right-to-work laws were specifically permitted by the Taft-Hartley Act of 1947.
  20. Public interest lobbies
    According to Jeffrey Berry, organizations that seek "a collective good, the achievement of which will not selectively and materially benefit the membership or activities of the organization."

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