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It is the study if factors that influence the frequency, distribution, and causes of injury, disease, and other health-related events in a population.
What is the Babinski response?
It is when the big toe doriflexes and the other toes fan out when the sole is stimulated.
- The arms are flexed, legs extended.
- It is a flexion of the arms to the body, extension of the legs, abnormal rigidity, and fingers and wrists bent andheld to the chest. The arms are bent in toward the wrists and the body and fingers are bent and held on the chest. This is indicates brain damage to the corticospinal tract(the pathway between the brain and the spinal cord) and rated as 3 in the motor response part of the GCS scale.
- The arms and legs are extended.
- Decerebrate posture is an abnormal body posture that involves the arms and legs being held straight out, the toes being pointed downward, and the head and neck being arched backwards. The muscles are tightened and held rigidly. This type of posturing usually means there has been severe damage to the brain.
True or False, the quiet child is often not injured.
False, often the injury or illness is much more severe in this case.
True or False, any alteration in mental status may indicate an emergent or already serious problem.
The order of focused history and secondary assessment for major trauma patients:
- -Primary Assessment
- -Rapid Trauma Assessment
- -Rapid Transport and Ongoing assessment.
List the types of patients.
- Trauma patient with significant MOI.
- Trauma patient with isolated injury.
- Reposnsive medical patient.
- Unresponsive medical patient.
Stress results from the interaction between events that cause anxiety and the coping abilities of the person.
It is the worry or dread about future uncertainties.
What is eustress?
Three stages to stress are:
- Alarm reaction
The human body can prepare itself quickly to do battle or run from danger. What is this mechanism or reaction called?
Fight or flight reaction.
True or False, your assessment of trauma patients should look to the obvious injuries.
False. You still need to perform your assessment to find all other injuries.
List some predictors of serious internal injury with an MVA.
- Ejection from the Vehicle.
- High speed collision.
- Deformed steering wheel.
Explain what the rapid trauma assessment is.
It is a quick check for signs of serious injury.
Define subcutaneous emphysema.
It is the crackling sensation caused by air just underneath the skin, like popping Rice Krispies.
Semi-fowler's position is:
Partially sitting up at a 45 degree angle.
What is Cullen's sign?
Bruising over the umbilicus.
Grey-Turner's sign is:
Bruising over the flanks.
What is repression?
The involuntary attempt to keep certain feelings or memories from reaching conscious awareness.
The return to an earlier level of emotional adjustment, or development phase of life, such as throwing a temper tantrum instead of discussing something.
List 5 of the signs of anxiety.
- Heart palpitations
- Difficult or rapid breathing
- Dry mouth
- Chest tightness or pain
- Anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarreha, abdominal cramps
- Urgency and frequent urination.
- Dysmenorrhea (painful period)
- Aching muscles
- Increased BGL
What are the 4 baseline vital signs?
- Pulse RRQ,
- Blood pressure.
- Resp's RRD
- Skin CCT.
Define periorbital ecchymosis.
The blue discoloration surrounding the eye sockets.
This is vomiting up blood, looks like coffee grounds.
What is hematuria?
Blood in the urine.
What is hemoptysis?
Coughing up blood.
What is the suggested flow rate for a NRB on an apneic 56yo male, pulse 122, BP 145/92?
This patient needs a BVM as they are not breathing.
What is orthopnea?
Difficulty breathing while supine.
______________ sounds are the sounds of the blood hitting the arterial walls.
The passage of blood through an organ or tissue.
Social, religious, or personal standards of right or wrong.
The rules or standards that govern the conduct of members of a particular group or profession.
What year was the first complete EMT-paramedic program offered at NAIT?
What year was the first recognition of the EMT-A certification provincially?
EMR was introduced in what year as a stop towards becoming a paramedic?
What year was the proclamation of the Ambulance Services Act?
What year did APPA become ACP?
What year did ACP redefine the scope of practice for the EMR?
The steadfast adherence to a strict moral or ethical code.
What year did EMS fall under the governance of the health professions act?
What year did ACP introduce the Alberta Occupational Compentency Profile which provides the scope of practive for all levels of prehospital care?
What are examples of external distractions to communications?
- Loud music
- EMS radios
What are internal distractions?
Thinking about things other than the situation.
Which level of practioiner (NOCP) fits the following.
Provide enhanced levels of care.
Use ALS procedures.
In urban, suburban, air and military settings.
Include invasive, advanced procedure, pharmacological interventions and delegate medical acts for managing airway, breathing and circulation?
Advanced Care Paramedic. ACP
What does the communications in the EMS system involve?
- Public access to EMS must be in place.
- Communications between EMD's and the crew,
- Communications to medical control and the hospital.
Protocols are the policies and procedures of an EMS system. What do they provide?
- A standard approach to common patient care
- A consistent level of medical care.
- A standard for accountability.
These are services that pose significant risk, and require a high level of professional competence.
A short informal debriefing held with in hours of the critical event is: