3610 Final

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  1. Physical
    Anything that takes up space ( equipment, table, chairs, etc.)
  2. Design
    Broad function of developing the facility (where your going to build, what the menu is going to be etc, euipment requiremnts)
  3. Layout
    Arranging physical and design so work flow efficiently
  4. Changes in Patterns of Dining Out
    More people than ever before are eating meals away from home
  5. Changes in Desired Menu Items
    A concern for physical fitness and well being has led to an increase in lighter menu offerings; organic and local foods
  6. Changes in patterns of dining out
    Changes in desired menu items
    Concern for employees
    Economic factors
    Built in safety, sanitation, and noise reduction
    Information on developments in design and equipment
    Regulatory Considerations
    Trends affecting foodservice design
  7. Concern for Employees
    Shortage of skilled labor and the desire to retain employees has led designers to consider making food service facilities more attractive
  8. Economic Factors
    • Costs of wages, food, and utilities can influence selection of a type of food service
    • Resource maximization
  9. Information on Developments in Design and Equipment
    Visits to new facilitates of the same type to garner new ideas
  10. Regulatory Considerations
    • Food service managers need to know which federal sate and local laws, codes, and regulations will affect their building project
    • Americans with Disabilities Act
  11. Prospectus
    • A written description that details all aspects of the situation under consideration
    • Contains 3 major sections:
    • –The rational
    • –Physical and operational characteristics
    • –Regulatory information
  12. Rationale
    • Includes the following:
    • •Title (name of the restaurant)
    • •Goal (make money, provide high quality food)
    • •Objective
    • •Policy
    • •Procedure
    • •Why you're doing it
  13. Physical and Operation Characteristics
    • Physical relate to architectural or design features
    • Operational refer to activities that take place in the food service department (scratch, heated food)
  14. Regulatory Information
    This section identifies the standards of safety, sanitation and cleanliness, noise control, and waste disposal
  15. Planning Team
    The expertise required of those on the team will vary depending on the extent of the project
  16. Feasability Study
    The collection of data about the market and other factors relating to the operation of the proposed facility
  17. Menu Analysis
    An important step in planing is to identify the type of menu and various food preparation methods for that menu
  18. Architectural Features
    • Building style and materials
    • Floors-durable, resistant to stains, non slip
    • Walls, ceilings, and noise reduction-easy to clean
    • Lighting- natural light as possible because its free
    • Heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning- where the air ducts are placed; good kitchen ventilation
    • Built-in refrigeration
    • Plumbing-where the drains are going to be
    • Electricity-where outlets are
  19. Lighting
    • Accounts for 1/3 of energy cost
    • Direct lighting aims at specific areas, kitchen with knives
    • Indirect lighting shines away from a specific area- dining areas
    • Food code requires lighting levels of at least 10 foot candles in storage, 20 foot candles in handwashing and warewashing, and at least 50 foot candles in work areas which involve detail work
  20. Budget/Cost Relationship
    • Planners usually establish a predetermined budget, which the projects total cost cannot exceed
    • Building construction costs are affected by many interrelated factors including prices for labor and materials that change
  21. Space Allowances & Relationships
    Determining the amount of floor space and how to divide it for food service activities varies with every operation
  22. Flow Diagram of Space Relationship
    Designing the floor plan begins with a diagram showing the flow of work, food and supplies form one procedure to the next
  23. Schematic Drawing
    • Translating the flow diagram into a preliminary floor plan
    • •General Guidelines
    • -Americans with Disabilities Act
  24. Receiving
    Storing and issuing food
    Pre preparation
    Preparation area
    Food assembly/serving
    Ware washing
    Supporting services-office for the manager
    7 major types of work in foodservice departments
  25. Mechanics of Drawing
    The actual drawing of a plan to scale requires certain tools and techniques
  26. Work Areas
    • Designed by computers
    • Architect's blueprints
  27. Designed by Computers
    Computer-aided design/Computer-aidedmanufacturing (CAD/CAM)
  28. Architect's Blueprint
    After the preliminary plans are thoroughly checked, the architect prepares a set of drawings reproduced as blue prints
  29. Specifications & Contract Documents
    These document contain a statement of general conditions, scope of work to be done, and a work schedule
  30. Bids, Contracts, Construction, & Inspection: Punch List
    When you have a new facility built or remodeled after its built or designed you can use it for two weeks to a month and make a list of final things that the contractor needs to come back and fix (series of minor fixes)
  31. Single Sided Buffets
    Can comfortably serve 50 -75 people
  32. Arranging Foods: Hot Food
    • Will be presented in chafing dishes
    • Place food in hotel pan that sits inside the chafing dish above a pan of hot water
  33. Arranging Foods: Cold Food
    Served on trays, platters, bowls, or mirrors
  34. Self-Service Bar
    • Keep utensils in food between use
    • Only one utensil should be used for each food item
    • Plates and bowls should only be used once to avoid contaminating food on the buffet or salad bar
    • Silverware placed with eating handle up
  35. Height
    Texture and shape
    Negative space
    Things to consider when designing presentation
  36. Design Presentation: Height
    Eye is naturally drawn toward highest point of tray (can be a garnish or a grosse piece)
  37. Flow
    Things to consider when arranging food
  38. Arranging Foods: Spacing
    Allow 1 linear foot between foods
  39. Arranging Foods: Accompaniments
    • Place appropriate garnishes, sauces near their principal food
    • Place a small plate or napkin near a platter for any serving utensils
  40. Portioning Foods
    • Not necessary to produce enough of each menu item to feed entire group
    • Far from foolproof formula used by most chefs:
    • –1 pound of food per person as a starting point and then adjust this number depending on factors such as the general composition of the group, the number of items offered, the structure of the event, and whether diners feed themselves or are served
  41. Presenting Hot Food
    If possible, serve in small quantities on warm platters that are exchanged frequently
  42. Presenting Cold Food
    • Not much of a challenge
    • Serve in small quantities
    • Can be set on a bed of ice
  43. Replenishing Food
    • Dishes from the buffet table should be removed when they are 2/3 empty or have deteriorated
    • Place fresh replacement on buffet immediately
  44. Serving Food
    Waiters principle responsibility is the maintain the appearance of the buffet and replenish items as needed
  45. Buffet Safety
    • Do not add new food to old food in a serving dish or chafing dish
    • Do not use chafing dish to heat food
    • Check food temperatures with thermometers at established time intervals
    • Be careful of steam when changing pans
    • Provide clean utensils for each dish and replace them often
    • Provide an ample supply of clean plates so diners do not have to reuse them
  46. Decorating Plates
    • Plate dusting
    • –Sprinkling with powder sugar
    • Garnishing with herbs and greens
    • Hippen masse
    • Sauces
  47. Service
    • 24-36 inches of table edge space should be allowed for each guest
    • Dinner plates and handles of flatware should be placed 1 inch from the edge of the table
    • Forks go on the left side
    • Use outside in
  48. Assembly
    The fitting together of prepared menu items to complete an entire menu
  49. Styles of Service: Self Service
    • Cafeteria
    • Machine vended
    • Buffet
    • Drive Thru/pick up
  50. Styles of Service: Tray
    • Centralized
    • Decetralized
  51. Styles of Service: Table Wait Service
    • American
    • French
    • Russian
    • Family style
  52. French Service
    • Food is prepared tableside
    • Rechaud- heater that keeps food warm at table
    • Chef de rang completes preparation in front of customers
    • Commis de rang- chief waiter that serves it to you
  53. Russian Service
    • Food is completely prepared and portioned in the kitchen
    • Banquet
  54. Styles of Service: Portable Meals
    • Off-premise
    • On-premise
  55. Off-Premise
    • Someone bringing you a meal that was prepared
    • Delivery
  56. On-Premise Delivery
    • A cafeteria at work that delivers to your office
    • Room service
  57. Formal Dining Rules
    • Using his or her left hand, the waitperson serves the food from the left-hand side of the guest
    • The dinner plate is placed directly in front of the guest
    • The waitperson uses his or her right hand to serve beverages from the right hand side of the guest
    • Dishes and beverages are removed from the left
  58. Green Design
    • The use of sustainable principles that minimize the use of nonrenewable resources and seek to prevent air, water, and ground contamination
    • Standards established by the US Green Building Council
    • Standards are known as LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) Green Building Rating System
  59. Goals of Green Design
    • Reduce or eliminate the negative impact of the building on local ecosystems
    • Develop a sustainable site plan
    • Safeguard water supplies and ensure water use efficiencies
    • Determine optimum facility and equipment energy efficiency
    • Make use of recyclable and recycled materials
  60. Benefits of Green Design
    • Increased worker productivity
    • Reduced long term costs of daily operations
    • Reduced negative environmental impacts
    • Healthy, sustainable communities
  61. Energy Conservation: Ventilation System
    • Single biggest controllable energy user in most commercial kitchens
    • Cooking equipment has more insulation to keep the kitchen cooler
    • The cost of heating and cooling a kitchen can be reduced by transferring air from the dining room
    • Use of heat pump water heaters (use of heat from equipment to heat water)
  62. Mixing power sources
    Types of Energy Conservation
  63. Energy Conservation: Heating Water
    Hot water generators and booster heaters for dishwasher are other major energy users
  64. Energy Conservation
    • Use equipment at full capacity
    • Turn equipment on only when needed
    • Practice preventative maintenance
  65. Energy Conservation: Heating, Ventilation, Air-Conditioning Systems
    • Make up air (bring air from outside in)
    • Make sure you have the right size air conditioner unit
    • Install covered locked thermostats
  66. Energy Conservation: Water Heating
    • Keep it in close proximity to its major use
    • Insulate the water lines
  67. Energy Conservation: Dishwashing
    Size the dishwasher to handle the average maximum requirements
  68. Energy Conservation: Cooking Equipment
    • Choose the correct size
    • Establish start up and shut down schedules
  69. Energy Conservation: Individal Cooking Equipment
    • Ranges
    • -Use open top burners, don’t require pre-heat
    • Convection ovens
    • -Cook faster, because of fan blowing
    • Steamers
    • -High production at minimum operating costs
    • Grooved griddle
    • -Minimizes air pollution
    • Broilers
    • -Compartment over it can warm plates
    • Salamanders/cheese melters
    • -Use infrared radiation
    • Braising pans/tilting skillets
    • -Versatile
    • Fryers
    • -Want to use self-contained oil filters to maximize oil life
  70. Water Conservation
    • Turning off faucets completely
    • Running dishwashers at full capacity
    • Using low-flow toilets
    • Serving water to customers only when requested
    • Using gray water
    • Reusing water where it doesn’t need to be sanitary
  71. Solid Waste Management
    • An urgent need exists to reduce the amount of municipal solid waste (MSW)
    • An integrated solid waste management system should be employed by all foodservice operations
  72. Source Reduction
    Animal Feed
    Fat to Fuel
    Incineration and Landfilling
    Ways to reduce solid waste management
  73. Solid Waste Management: Source Reduction
    • The design and manufacturing of products, and packaging of products with minimum toxic content and minimum volume of material and/or a longer life
    • Buying in bulk
    • Cardboard crushers and pulpers
  74. Solid Waste Management: Composting
    Conserves resources by keeping valuable organic material from being land filled
  75. Solid Waste Management: Animal Feed
    • Waste is diverted from landfills
    • Nutrient density of animal diets can be increased
    • Ration costs can be reduced and farmer’s profits increased
  76. Solid Waste Management: Fat to Fuel
    U.S. military engineers are testing a plan to recycle used restaurant oil into biodiesel, a cleaner burning fuel
  77. Solid Waste Management: Inceneration & Landfilling
    • These are the final alternatives in the integrated waste management system
    • Landfilling is worst
  78. Facility Waste Assessment
    • A systematic way to identify waste reduction opportunities in a specific operation
    • Waste stream analysis: a systematic method of collecting, sorting, and weighing waste
    • Waste audit: a method of determining the amounts and types of waste produced by an operation
  79. Production
    The transformation of raw or processed foods into an acceptable finished product, ready for service, is an essential function in any foodservice system
  80. Product Evaluation
    • This is part of the initial testing phase of a new recipe and important for quality control
    • Many foodservice organizations conduct sensory analysis just prior to meal service
  81. QWL Approach: Work Methods
    To design the most effective and efficient work methods, managers must answer the following question: How much work of what quality will be accomplished in what length of time and at what cost?
  82. QWL Approach: Work Simplification
    A way of thinking or a philosophy that there is always a better way
  83. QWL Approach
    You are eliminating any uneconomical use of time, equipment, materials, space, or human effort
  84. QWL Approach: Performance Improvement Program
    • Select the job to be improved
    • Break down the job in detail
    • Challenge every detail
    • Develop a better method
    • Put the new method into effect
  85. QWL Approach: Motion & Time Study
    • Much analysis or breakdown of jobs is done through this
    • Systematic study of work systems for purpose of
    • Developing the preferred system and method
    • Standardizing this system and method
    • Determining the time required by a qualified and properly trained person working at a normal pace
    • Assisting in training the worker in the preferred method
  86. QWL Approach: Methods for Performance Improvement Study
    • Work sampling
    • Pathway chart/flow diagram
    • Operation charts
    • Process charts
    • Micromotion study
    • •Therbligs
    • •Chronocyclegraph
  87. Work Sampling
    • Tool for fact finding
    • Less costly in time and money
    • Random sampling of work to measure the activities and delays of people or machines to determine percentage of production time
  88. Pathway Chart/Flow Diagram
    Scale drawing of an area on which the path of the worker or movement of material during a given process can be indicated and measured, but with no breakdown of time or details of the operation
  89. Operation Chart
    • Used to record the elemental movements of the hands of a worker at a given station, without consideration of time
    • Small circle= transportation
    • Large circle= action
  90. Process Chart
    • Form on which to record and analyze the breakdown of a job
    • Graphically presents the separate steps by use of symbols
    • –O= operation or main steps in process
    • – -->= transportation or movement
    • –D= delay
    • –V= storage or hold
    • –Square= inspection
  91. Micromotion Study
    A technique whereby movements of the worker may be photographed and recorded permanently on film
  92. Therbligs
    Graphic form of micromotion film
  93. Chronocyclograph
    Photographic technique designed to show motion patterns of hands, performing rapid repetitive operations
  94. Enhance aesthetic appeal
    Destroy harmful organisms
    Improve digestibility, maximize nutrient retention
    Objectives of cooking in food production
  95. Expanding or reducing recipes
    Storing recipes
    Objectives of computers in production
  96. Production Scheduling
    A decision-making and communication process whereby the production staff is informed of how the actual activity of food preparation is to take place over a specified period of time
  97. Production Schedule
    A detailed document used to communicate with/to the production staff the work that needs to be done for specified period of time
  98. Production Meetings
    A meeting with the production staff to discuss the menu and production plans
  99. Things Included in the Production Schedule
    • Production date
    • Meal
    • Customer count
    • Employee assignments
    • Preparation time schedule
    • Menu item
    • Quantity to prepare
    • Substitutions
    • Actual yield
    • Additional assignments
    • Special instructions or comments
    • Pre-preparations
  100. Batch Cooking
    • Variant of prouction scheduling
    • Total estimated quantity of menu items is divided into smaller quantities
    • Then placed in pans ready for final cooking and heating
    • Cook as needed
  101. Staffing
    The determination of the appropriate number of employees needed by the operation for the work that must be accomplished
  102. Scheduling
    • Having the correct number of workers on duty as determined by staffing need
    • Involves assignments of employees to specific working hours and working days
  103. Operational differences
    -Meals served, where located
    -Absenteeism, labor turnover, vacations, holidays, days off, special events, etc
    Type of foodservice
    -Conventional vs assembly/serve
    Staffing and scheduling depend on
  104. Solving Scheduling Problems
    • Relief employees (not apporpriate to schedule only full time employees in food service environment)
    • Part-time:
    • -Most staff
    • -Split shift scheduling (staggered)
    • Temporary and leased employees
  105. Master schedule
    Shift schedule
    Production schedule
    Alternate work schedule
    Types of schedules
  106. Master Schedule
    • Includes days off and is an overall plan for employee scheduling
    • Usually rotation is used for determining days off
  107. Shift Schedule
    • Shows the staffing pattern of the operation
    • Example: 6 dishwashers come on duty at 7am then the next shift at 3pm
    • Can use staggered shift
  108. Alternative Work Schedule
    • Discretionary working time/flex time
    • Job sharing
  109. Maintain quality food characteristics
Ensure microbial safety of food

    Serve food that is attractive and satisfying to the consumer
    Goals of Delivery & Service System
  110. Methods
    Delivery and service as subsystems
  111. Delivery
    Refers to the transportation's of prepared foods from production to place of service
  112. Services
    Involves assembling prepared menu items and distributing them to the consumer
  113. Centralized Delivery Service System
    Prepared foods are portioned and assembled at a central area and then completed orders are transported and delivered to the consumer
  114. Decentralized Delivery Service System
    Bulk quantities of prepared foods are sent hot and cold to serving kitchens located throughout the facility, where reheating, portioning and meal assembly occur ( to hard to transport by plate, satellite facility)
  115. Conventional


    Types of food service systems
  116. Conventional Service
    • Cooked there served there
    • Centralized cooking system
  117. Commisionary Service
    • Everything is made at one place then sent out to satellite facilities
    • Decentralized
  118. Schools, colleges, industrial plants

    Fast food

    Hospitals and nursing homes

    Table service restaurants
    Types of food service organizations
  119. Type of food service system

    Types of food service organization
Size and physical layout of facility

    Style of service
Skill level of available personnel
Economic factors

    Quality standards for food and microbial safety

    Timing required for meal service

    Space requirement/space available

    Energy usage
    Factors affecting choice of distribution center
  120. Size & Physical Layout of Facility
    The size and building arrangement of the facility are additional factors to consider when selecting a delivery system
  121. Self-service

    Tray service

    Wait service
Portable service
    Styles of service
  122. Skill Level of Available Personnel
    Labor needs and required skills very for different types of delivery systems and for the equipment used
  123. Economic Factors
    Labor and equipment needed must be calculated and evaluated in relation to budget allocations
  124. Quality Standards for Food & Microbial Safety
    The time of day desired or established for meals is another factor influencing the choice of a delivery service system
  125. Space Requirements/Space Available
    The delivery-service system preferred should be stated early in the facility planning process
  126. Energy Usage
    A concern for energy use and its conservation plays a role in deciding on a delivery-service system
  127. Delivery Service Equipment
    • Fixed or built in equipment-built in to the facility when it was built (elevators or monorails for the food), planned as the facility is built and can include no one to actually push a cart
    • Mobile equipment-moved on wheels or castors (trucks or movable carts)
    • Portable equipment- (smaller, you can carry it, like an insulated pizza delivery box)
    • Pellet disc
    • Insulated trays with insulated covers-insulated so it keeps something hot or cold for 30 minutes (thermos)
  128. Pellet Disc
    Has to due with trays, schools hospitals, have a plate that has another plate underneath that has a pellet it in that is preheated and placed under your serving plate and it keeps the temperature on the plate for 40 - 45 minutes
  129. Reheating Frozen or Chilled Foods
    With any rethermalization system the objective is to heat the food product to service temperature and to retain nutrients content, microbial safety and sensory quality
  130. Temperature Maintenance & Holding
    Equipment for this short time holding includes refrigerated and heated storage units
  131. Transportation & Delivery
    When choosing transportation equipment the manager must consider holding time, distance to be traveled, and the layout of the building
  132. Cafeteria

    Vending machine

    Drive-thru/pick up
    Styles of self-service
  133. Cafeteria (Buffet)
    • Traditional-everyone goes down a straight line (same thing); benefit- see every item, just need to run one piece of equipment
    • Scramble system-multiple lines (salad, hot foods), not everyone is in the same line
  134. American Service
    A host greets the guest and seats them, a wait staff takes the order and brings the food and removes the soiled dishes, everything is done in the kitchen and brought to you
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3610 Final
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