Psych 32 Chap 1-4.txt

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    • author "Jason"
    • tags "Psychology"
    • description "Developmental Psychology"
    • fileName "Psych 32 Chap 1-4"
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    • Freud
    • Oral, Anal, Phillac, Latency & Genital staes of development
  1. Cutural Cognitive Development
  2. Imprinting
    Konrad Lorenz
  3. Ecological Human Development
  4. Plasticity
    A capacity to change
  5. Context
    A setting in which development occurs such as school or neighborhood
  6. Normative age graded influence
    A way in which context influences development which are associated by events that are similar for a particular age group
  7. Normative history-graded influences
    Common influences shared by people of similar generations because of historical impact
  8. Non-normative life influences
    A context influence that is characterized by unusual occurances that had a major impact on someone's life
  9. Culuture
    Context consisting of behavior patterns, beliefs and products of a particular group passed down from generation to generation
  10. Cross-Culture
    Studies that compare 2 or more culutures
  11. Theory that Psycho-social crisis resolution impacted the development of a individual
    Erikson's Theory
  12. Piaget's Cognitive Developmental Theory
    Theory of Four stages of Universal Cognitive Development: Sensorimotor, Pre-operational, Concrete Operational, Formal Operational
  13. A person's position in society based on occupation, education and economic status
    Socioeconomic status
  14. The devolpmental period from conception to birth
    Prenatal period
  15. The developmental period from birth to 2 years
    Infant Period
  16. Devrlopment period from 40 to 60: concerns for next generation to reach goals
    Middle Adult
  17. Transition period from childhood to early adulthood: phyical, primary & secondary sexual changes
  18. A way of measuring age by numerical years from birth
  19. Measuring age by health of vital organs
    Biological Age
  20. Conceptualizing age based on adaptive capacity of others in the same chronological age
    Psychological age
  21. Controversy between biological vs environmental development
    Nature-Nuture issue
  22. Controversy between Quantitative (fluid) vs Qualitative (stagelike) development
    Continuity vs Discontinuity
  23. Theory
    An interrelated, coherent set of idea that helps explain behavior and make predictions
  24. Jean Piaget's stage between birth to 2 years. (thinking)
    Sensorimotor stage
  25. Jean Piaget cognitive developmental stage between 7 to 11 (logic)
    Concrete Operational Stage
  26. Jean Piaget Cognitive Developmental stage between adolescense through adulthood (abstract)
    Formal Operational stage
  27. Results learned from reinforcement and punishment
  28. Perspective in which we can only scientifically study what is directly observed or measured
    Observational Learning
  29. A method where one person is studied extensively
    Case Study
  30. A research design that allows one to describe the strenght of a relationship between two variables; cause and effect can not be determined
    Correlation research
  31. A research design that allows someone to confidently make statements regarding causr and effect
    Experimental research
  32. Developmental design in which people of different ages are studied at the same time
    Cross-sectional approach
  33. Developmental design where the same poeople are studied over time
    Longtitude approach
  34. A group of people born on a specified timespan whom experienced similar cultural and historical events
  35. Five Characteristics of the Life-Span L
    • 1. Development is Lifelong
    • 2. Multidimentional
    • 3. Multidirectional
    • 4. Multidisciplinary
    • 5. Contextual
    • 6. Plastic
  36. Eight Life-Span Developmental Periods
    • 1. Prenatal
    • 2. Infancy (0 - 2)
    • 3. Early Childhood (2 - 5)
    • 4. Middle & Late Childhood (6-11)
    • 5. Adolescence (10 - 22)
    • 6. Early Adulthood (23 - 39)
    • 7. Middle Adulthood (40-60)
    • 8. Late Adulthood (60 >)
  37. Three ways to Conceptualize age
    • 1. Biological
    • 2. Chronological
    • 3. Psychological
  38. Bronfenbrenner's 5 Environmental Systems of Ecological Theory
    • 1. Microsystem
    • 2. Mesosystem
    • 3. Exosystem
    • 4. Macrosystem
    • 5. Chronosystem
  39. Research aimed to Observe and Record behavior
    Descriptive Resaearch
  40. Research aimed to describe the strength between 2 or more variables
    Correlation research
  41. Experiment in which one or more factors are manipulated while all other factors remain constant
    Experimental research
  42. Erickson's 8 Stages of Pyschosocial Development
    • 1. Trust vs Mistrust : infancy (0 - 1)
    • 2. Autonomy vs Shame & Doubt (1-3)
    • 3. Initiative vs Guilt : (3 - 5)
    • 4. Industry vs Inferiority : (6 - 11)
    • 5. Identity vs Identity Confusion (12-20)
    • 6. Intamacy vs Isolation (21 - 39)
    • 7. Generativity vs Stagnation (40 - 59)
    • 8. Integrity vs Despair (60>)
  43. "Survival of the fittest" perspective
    Evolution Psychology
  44. A complex molecule with a double helix shape, that contains genetic information
    DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
  45. Threadlike structures containing DNA. Arranged in 23 pairs
  46. Short segmemts of DNA located on the chromosone containing heredity information
  47. The observable traits of an individual genetic make-up
  48. The interaction of many different genes to produce an inherited characteristic
    Polygenic inheritance
  49. A chromosone abnormalty on the 21st chromosone
    Down Syndrome
  50. A sex linked chromosomal disorder in females in which the x chromosome is missing a partially deleted. Resulting in short stature, webbed neck and infertility
    Turner Syndrome
  51. A genetic disorder occuring mostly in African Americans in which red blood cell have an abnormal shape
    Sickle-cell anemia
  52. A heredity-environment correlation in which individuals seek out environments that are consistent with their genetic make-up
    Active (niche-picking) genotype environmenral correlation
  53. What is the prenatal development period from 2 - 8 weeks.
    Embryonic period
  54. The prenatal development period from 2 - 7 months
    The Fetal Period
  55. What is the prenatal period that takes place the first 2 weeks after conception
    The Germinal Period
  56. Organogenesis
    The name given to the process of organ formation during the first 2 months
  57. It contains 2 arteries and a vein connecting the baby to the placenta
    The umbilical cord
  58. Oxygen, water, salt, food, carbon dioxide and other matrrial intertwine between mother and baby through this life-support system
  59. A prenatal test designed to assess whether the fetus is developing normally throug higj-frequency sound waves
    Ultra sound
  60. A prenatal test in which amniotic fluid is withdrawn by a syringe and tested for chromosomal or metabolic disorder
  61. Any agent that can cause a birth defect or negatively alter cognitive and behavioral outcomes of the developing baby
  62. Drugs that act on the nervous system to alter states of cosciousness, modify perception and change mood
    Psychoactive drugs
  63. A cluster of abnormalities that appears in offspring of mothers who drink heavy amounts of alcohol while pregnant
    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD)
  64. A kind of drug used in the late stages of labor and during expulsion of baby to block consciousness in a part of the mothers body
  65. A kind of drug used to stimulate contractions in a pregnant woman
  66. Position in which the buttocks emerge first during labor
    Breech position
  67. A delivery in which the baby is removed from the mother's uterus through an incision in her abdomen
    Cesarean delivery
  68. Used to assess a newborn's health by evaluating heart rate, body color, and reflec irritability
    APGAR scale
  69. Low Birth Weight infant
    An infant weighing less than 5 1/2 pounds
  70. An infant born 3 or more weeks before the pregnancy has reached full term
  71. Skin to Skin contact holdong of a baby
    Kangaroo Care
  72. The period immidiately after childborth in which the mother adjusts, both physically and psychologically
    The "Critical Period"
  73. Involution
    The process in which the uterus returns to prepregnant size 5 to 6 weeks after birth
  74. A major depressive episode that typically occurs 4 weeks after delivering a baby
    Postpartum Depression
  75. Three ideas in Evolutionary Psychology
    • 1. Adaptation
    • 2. Reproduction
    • 3. Survival of the Fittest
  76. 4 Genetic disorders associated with Sex chromosome abnormalities
    • 1. Down Syndrome
    • 2. Klinefelter Syndrome
    • 3. Fragile X Syndrome
    • 4. Turner Syndrome
  77. Passive genotype environmental cortelation
    Parents create/manipulate environment to increase a likely outcome
  78. Evocative genotype-environment correlation
    Children emulate charcteristics from their parent which is a direct correlation to the type of environment they've experienced
  79. Active genotype-environment correlstion
    Children seek out environments they find compatible & stimulating
  80. Endoderm
    The embryo's inner layer of cells which develop into the digestive and respiratory system
  81. Ectoderm
    The outermost layer which will become the nervous system, sensory receptors and skin parts
  82. Mesoderm
    Middle layer which will become the circulatory system, bones, muscle excretory system and reproductive system
  83. 3 Life Support systems for devolpment during the Embryonic period
    • 1. Amnion
    • 2. Umbilical cord
    • 3. Placenta
  84. 3 Factors that infuence the severiry of damage due to a teratogen
    • 1. Dose
    • 2. Genetic susceptibility
    • 3. Time of exposure
  85. 5 General catergories of Teratogens
    • 1. Drugs
    • 2. Incompatible blood types
    • 3. Environmental pollutants
    • 4. Infectious disease
    • 5. Nutritional defeciency
  86. Effects of Nicotine on a Fetus
    • SIDS Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
    • Preterm Births
    • Cardiovascular problems
  87. 3 Environmental Hazards that can endanger a Fetus
    • 1. Radiation
    • 2. Other Pollutants
    • 3. Toxic waste
  88. 2 Paternal factors that can impact fetal development
    • 1. Chemical exposure
    • 2. Smoking
  89. The 4 Methods of Delivery
    • 1. Medication
    • 2. Natural Child birth
    • 3. Prepared Childbirth (Lamaze Method)
    • 4. Water birth
  90. APGAR score Evaluation
    • 1. Heart rate
    • 2. Respiratory effort
    • 3. Muscle tone
    • 4. Body color
    • 5. Reflex irritability
  91. 3 Types of Low birth weight infants
    • 1. Low birth weight - 5 1/2 lbs <
    • 2. Very Low birth weight - 3 lbs <
    • 3. Extremely Low birth rate - 2 lbs <
  92. Consequences of Low birth rate
    • 1. Extremely preterm : 28 weeks <
    • 2. Very preterm : 33 weeks <
  93. The earliest growth always occur at the top-head with physical growth from top to bottom
    Cephalocaudal pattern
  94. The sequence in which growth starts at the center
    Proximodistal Pattern
  95. Tiny gaps between 2 or more neurons
  96. A reflex when an infants cheeks ate stroked
    The rooting reflex
  97. Built in reactions to stimulate newborn's movement
  98. Reflex to a sudden intense noise or movement
    Moro reflex
  99. Skills that involve large muscle activity
    Gross motor skills
  100. Skills that involve finely tuned movements such as drawing or painting
    Fine motor skills
  101. The interpretation of information that has been sensed
  102. A decrease responsiveness to stimuli that had been repeatedly presented
  103. According to Piaget, Actions or mental representations that organize knowledge
  104. According to Piaget, the process in which chidren adjust their current schemes to take in new information or experiences
  105. According to Jean Piaget, children use existing schemes to process new information
  106. Piaget's concept to explain when the environment is inconsistent with the current scheme
  107. Piaget's theory of grouping isolated behavior into a higher-order cognitive system
  108. According to Piaget, this is the stage where chidren construct an understanding of their world by coordinating sensory experiences w/ physical, motoric actions
    Sensorimotor stage
  109. According to Piaget, the understanding that objects continue to exist when they cannot be seen, heard, or touched
    Object permanence
  110. Memory without conscious recollection. Includes menories of skilled and routine procedures ex. Crawling
    Implicit menory
  111. Memory of facts & experiences that one consciously knows ex...the capitol of the United States
    Explicit memory
  112. Most adult remember little or nothing during their first 3 years of life
    Infantile memory
  113. The basic unit of sound in a language; the smallest unit of sound that affects meaning
  114. Long vowel sounds that babies make about 1 to 2 months of age. Usually made from the back of the tbroat to express pleasure
  115. Sounds that babies make at 6 months
  116. 2 or more short uterances that children use at 11/2 to 2 years old
    Telegrahic speech
  117. An area in the left frontal lobe of the brain that is involved in language
    Broca's area
  118. An area in the left hemisphere of the brain that is involved with language comprehension
    Wernicke's area
  119. 5 factors that can contribute to a baby dying of SIDS
    • 1. Mal-Nutrition
    • 2. Lying face down
    • 3. Cigarrette smoking
    • 4. Soft bedding
    • 5. Sleeping w/ pacifier
  120. 5 benefits of breast feeding
    • 1. Appropriate weight gain
    • 2. Lower risk of SIDS
    • 3. Fewer gastrointestinal infections
    • 4. Lower risk of respiratory track infection
    • 5. Lower risk of child obesity
  121. 3 situations in which mothers are advised not to Breast-feed
    • 1. Mother has AIDS
    • 2. Mother has active turberculosis
    • 3. Mother is taking drugs
  122. 4 Types of Baby reflexes
    • 1. Blinking
    • 2. Grasping
    • 3. Rooting - turns head, opens mouth and begins sucking
    • 4. Stepping
  123. A type of cry that is associated with a onset of loud crying without any preliminary moaning followed by breath holding
    Pain cry
  124. A smile in response to an external stimulus
    Social smile
  125. A smile that does not occur in response to external stimuli
    Reflexive smile
  126. An infant's fear of strangers, it tends to appear in the second half of the first year of life
    Stranger anxiety
  127. An infant's distressed reaction when caregivers leave
    Separation protest
  128. Analyzing emotional cues in others to help determine how to act in a particular situation
    Social reference
  129. The ability to inhibit, or minimize the intensity and duration of emotional reaction
  130. A temperant classification, according to Alexander Chess & Stella Thomas that includes children who are generally in a poaitive mood- establish regular routines and adapt easily to new experiences
    Easy Child
  131. A temperament in which a child reacts negatively, cries frequently and is slow to acceptance
    Difficult Child
  132. A temperament in classification in which a child has a low activity level, somewhat negative and a low intensity of mood
    Slow to Warm Child
  133. The match between a child's temperament and the environmental demands in which a child must cope
    Godness to Fit
  134. A close emotional bond between infant and caregiver
  135. An observable measure of infant attachment in which the infant experiences a series of introductions, seperations, and reunions with the caregiver and an adult stranger
    Strange situation
  136. An attachment classification in which the infant's behavior in the Strange situation leads him to explore the playroom when the care giver is present and midly protest when the caregiver leaves
    Security attachment babies
  137. A Strange situation classification in which the infants do not explore the playroom and often cries loudly when the caregiver leaves the room
    Insecure resistant babies
  138. An attachment classification in the Strange Situation in which the babies engage in little interaction with the caregiver and are not upset when the caregiver leaves the room
    Insecure avoidant babies
  139. Socialization that is bidirectional; children and parents socialize together
  140. 3 Types of cries that have been identified with babies
    • 1. Basic Cry
    • 2. Anger Cry
    • 3. Pain Cry
  141. 3 Types of temperament (Thomas & Chess, 1991)
    • 1. Easy Child
    • 2. Difficult Child
    • 3. Slow to Warm Child
  142. 4 Phases of attachment
    • 1. Birth to 2 months - attached to parents
    • 2. 2 to 7months - attach focuses on 1 figure
    • 3. 7 to 24 months - baby actively seeks out contact from caregiver
    • 4. 24 months onward - baby is aware of others
  143. 4 Types of attachments
    • 1. Securely Attached babies
    • 2. Insecure Avoidant babies
    • 3. Insecure Resistant babies
    • 4. Insecure Disorganized babies
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Psych 32 Chap 1-4.txt
Developmental Psychology
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