Psych 32 Chap 5

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Psych 32 Chap 5
2012-05-04 13:39:29
Psych 32 Chap

Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood
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  1. Myelination
    The process of axons increase the speed and efficiency of information traveling through the nervous system
  2. Piaget 2nd stage which last from 2 to 7 in which children begin to represent the world with words, images and drawings
    Pre-operational stage
  3. Ability to do a task mentally
  4. Ability to mentally represent an object that is not present between the ages of 2 & 4
    Symbolic function substage
  5. Egocentrism
    The inability to distinguish between one's own perspective and someone else's perspective
  6. The belief that an inanimate object has lifelike qualties
  7. The stage in which children begin to reason and want to know the answers to all sorts of questions
    The intuitive thought substance
  8. Centration
    To center your attention on one character and excluding everything else
  9. The awareness that altering an object apperance does not not change its basic properties
  10. A centering of attention on one characteristic to the exclusion of others
  11. Vigotsky social cinstructivist apprach
    The social context in which learning and the construction of knowledge is achieved through social interaction
  12. A term used in Vygotsky's Theory in which states a limit in a child's ability to learn a task. It can increase with the help of a parent
    Zone of proximal development
  13. Children use of speech to help them
    Private speech
  14. Ability to act without verbalizing your thoughts & actions
    Inner speech
  15. Planning actions, focusing on goals, detecting and compensating for errors, monitoring progress and dealing with difficult circumstances
    Executive attention
  16. Extensive attention on a particular object, task, or event
    Sustained attention
  17. Memory
    The retention of information over time
  18. The awareness of ones own mental processes and those of others
    Theory of mind
  19. 3 mental states of children 2 to 3 years old
    • 1. Perception
    • 2. Emotions
    • 3. Desires
  20. The sound system of a language, including the sounds used and how they combine
  21. Ability to inderstand word formation past, present and future tense
  22. Vocabulary development involving understanding the meaning of words and sentences
  23. The ability to adjust your speech depending on a particular setting
  24. 3 steps of early childhood kindergarden
    • 1. Each child follows a unique developmental pattern
    • 2. Young children learn best througj first hand experience
    • 3. Play is important to a child's development
  25. A philosophy of education in which children are given freedom and spontaneity to choose activities
    The Montessori approach
  26. The importance of creating settings that encourage children to be active learners and reflect their interest and capabilities
    Developmentally Appropriate Practice (DAP)
  27. How much inches does a child grow during their early childhood?
    2 1/2 inches
  28. How much weight does a child gain during their early childhood stages?
    5 - 7 pounds
  29. What are the 2 most important contributors to height differences?
    Ethnic origin and Nutrition
  30. Skills that involve large-muscle activities such as movivg one's arms jumping and walking
    Gross Motor Skills
  31. Skills that invovle finely tuned movements including grasping a toy, using a spoon and buttoning a shirt
    Fine Motor Skills
  32. The age associated with Gross Motor Skills such as hopping, jumping, and running back and forth
    3 years of age
  33. The age associated with Gross Motor Skills in which the child becomes more adventurous such as scrambling over jungle gyms as they display their athletical prowess
    4 years of age
  34. What are factors that help influence young children's eating behavior
    • 1. Caregiver
    • 2. Television
    • 3. Family arguments
  35. What percentage of children's meals exceed recommendations for tran fat and saturated fat
  36. What are the percentages for children who are overweight or are at risk of being overweight
    • Obese : 11%
    • Overweight : 16%
    • Risk of becoming overweight : 38%
  37. What percentage of children will continue to be overweight at age 12 if they were overweight at age 3
  38. What ranking is the United States for Childhood obesity
  39. What is the reconmended amount of exercise for preschool children per day
    2 hours
  40. What does WIC stand for?
    Women, Infant, Children is a federal program which provides low income families nutritional meals for women, infants and children up to age 5.
  41. What are the 2 top causes of death for young children in the United States
    • 1. Accidents
    • 2. Cancer
  42. What percentage of children and infants are exposed to tobacco smoke
  43. What are the leading cause of death for children outside the U.S.?
    • 1. Malnutrition
    • 2. Illness/Inadequate Health Care
    • 3. Unsafe water
  44. The abulity to retain information for up to 30 seconds with no rehersal
    Short-Term memory
  45. A Theory of mind in which a child realizes that other people see what is in front of their eyes and not necessarily what is in front of the child's eyes
  46. A Theory of Mind in which the child understands if someone wants something, he or she will try to get it. A child might say "I want my mommy"
  47. A Theory of Mind in which the can distinguish between positive and negative emotions.
  48. Usually occuring in ages 4 to 5 in which children come to understand that the mind can represent objects inacurately or acurately
    False beliefs
  49. The age in which children have a deepening appreciation of the mind rather than just an understanding of mental states
    Beyond age 5
  50. A federal government program started in 1965 to break the cycle of poverty and poor education for young children
    Project Head Start