chapter3

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jenniferbarr
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chapter3
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2012-05-04 14:46:49
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chapter3
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  1. the basic structural unit of all organisms.
    cell
  2. the three main parts of a cell are
    • 1.cell membrane
    • 2.cytoplasm
    • 3. nucleus
  3. a bilayer of phospholipid and protein molecules that controls passage of materials in and out of cell
    cell membrane
  4. the meduim for chemical reactions in the cell.
    cytoplasm
  5. the largest and innermost oranelle in the cell contains dna and rgulates cell activity
    nuclues
  6. carries genetic information that directs all cell activites
    DNA
  7. the genetic material contained in te nucleus of a nondividing cell consists of chromosomes
    chromatin
  8. a dense body with in the nucleus composed of dna, rna, and prtoein molecules and it the site for synthesis of Rna
    nucleolus
  9. they direct the formation of proteins
    RNA
  10. a specialized part of a cell that performs a particular function
    organelle
  11. provide enzymes that link amino acids for protein synthesis
    ribosome
  12. mitochondrion
    serves as the power plant
  13. digests material that comes into the cell and they break down nutrient molecules and foreign particles (garbage disposals)
    lysosomes
  14. coordinates movement of organelles
    cytoskeleton
  15. involed with cell division and organizing mitotic spindles
    centriole
  16. moves substances across the surface of a cell
    cilium
  17. the division of a somatic cell to form two new cells each idnetical to the partent cell
    mitosis
  18. four stages of mitosis
    prohase, metaphase,anaphase,telophase
  19. a type of nuclear division in which thge number of chromosomes is reduced to half the number found in a normal ody cell. results in the formation of an egg or sperm
    meiosis
  20. separation of the cytoplasm
    cytokinesis
  21. the movement of molecules from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration a concentration gradient
    diffusion
  22. the diffusion of water through a selctively permeable membrane
    osmosis
  23. diffusion through a membrane by means of proteins called carrier molecules
    facilitated diffusion
  24. the movement of fluid througha membrane in response to hydrostatic pressure
    filtration
  25. the movement of substances agianst a concentration gradient from a region of lower concentration to higher concentration. requires energy and a carrier molecule
    active transport
  26. the formation of vesicles in the cell membrance to transfer particles and droplets from the outside into the cell.
  27. endocytosis
  28. ingestion of solids
    phagocytosis
  29. ingestion of liquids
    pinocytosis
  30. the dischare from a cell of particles too large to pass through the cell membrane by diffusion
    exocytosis
  31. a solution that has the same concentration as fluids within a cell
    isotonic solution
  32. a solution that has a higher concentration than the fluids within a cell
    hypertonic solution
  33. a solution that has a lower concentration than the fluids within a cell
    hypotonic solution
  34. the simplest form of matter. cannot be broken down.
    element
  35. the number of protons in the nucleus of the atom.
    atomic number
  36. a substance with a pH less than 7
    acid
  37. a substance with a pH greater than 7
    base
  38. a mixture where a sold is distributed but not dissolved,
    suspension
  39. the study of tissues
    histology
  40. types of tissues
    connective muscular nervous and epithelial
  41. cells that produce mucus in difestive respiratory urinary and reproductive tracts
    goblet cell
  42. plane that divides the body into fron and back halves. aka coronal plane
    frontal plane
  43. a plane that divides the body into left and right portions. aka lateral plane
    sagittal plane
  44. plane that passes along the midline and divides the body into equal left and right halves. aka median plane
    midsagittal plane
  45. a plane that divides the body into upper and lower halves. aka horizontal plane
    transverse plane
  46. main body caivity consisting of cranial cavity, which contains the brain, and the spinal cavity
    dorsal cavity
  47. body cavity consisting of the thoracic the abdominal and the pelvic cavities.
  48. ventral cavity
  49. a translucent band that is seen best in thick glabrous skin
    stratum lucidum
  50. dead keratinized cells located on the outer surface of the epidermis
    stratum corneum
  51. the shaft of the long bone
    diaphysis
  52. spongy bone tissue located at the ends of a long bone
    epiphysis
  53. how many bones are in the human skeleton
    206
  54. a u shaped bone in the neck that supports the tongue.
    hyoid bone
  55. how many vertabrea are in the skeleton
    26
  56. the second cervical vertebra. allows the head to turn
    axis
  57. the last bone at the base of the vertebra column. tailbone
    coccyx
  58. how many pairs of true ribs
    7
  59. how many false ribs
    pairs 8- 10
  60. floating ribs
    ribs 11 and 12
  61. the skeletal structure consisting of the two clavicles and the two shoulder blades
    pectoral girdle
  62. another name for shoulder blade
    scapula
  63. a projection on the ulna that forms the bony point of the elbow
    olecranon process
  64. a projection on the temporal bone
    styloid process
  65. the skeletal structure consisting of the ilium the sacrum and the coccyx
    pelvic girdle
  66. the three types of muscle are
    smooth(visceral), skeletal(voluntary), an cardiac(involuntary)
  67. two types of proteins in the muscle are
    myosin and actin

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