chapter 34

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chapter 34
2012-05-04 16:06:52

Africa, the Middle East, and Asia in the Era of Independence
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  1. State the impact of colonizers on new nations.
    Europeans hastily colonized Africa and established boundaries without reference to ethnic groups or cultural homogeneity.
  2. Which region currently has the highest rate of population growth?
  3. One of the chief by-products of population growth in the Third World nations has been...
    mass migration to cities.
  4. State something accruate about Third World urbanization.
    Third World cities lacked the rapidly expanding industrial sectors that make absorption of migrants possible.
  5. Who were the women that were head of state of an independent Third World nation?
    • -Indira Gandhi
    • -Benazir Bhutto
    • -Corazon Aquino
  6. The continued relegation of the Third World to economic dependency after decolonization is sometimes referred to as the...
  7. The ruler associated with the establishment of charismatic populism in Ghana was
    Kwame Nkrumah.
  8. One of the most common elements of African and Asian governments since decolonization is
    military takeovers
  9. Which nation experienced a military takeover of its government?
  10. The military in Third World nations...
    were more resistant to division by religious and ethnic rivalries.
  11. What movement did Hasan al-Banna found in 1928 in Egypt?
    the Muslim Brotherhood
  12. Gamal Abdul Nasser
    participated in the Free Officer movement that toppled the Khedive Farouk in 1952.
  13. Nasser's greatest foreign policy coup was the
    expulsion of the British from the Suez Canal Zone in 1956.
  14. How was India similar to Egypt following decolonization?
    emphasis on socialism and state intervention in the economy
  15. What was typical of post-independence India?
    one-party control of the national government.
  16. Compare the Iranian revolution of 1979 and the nineteenth-century Mahdist revolt in the Sudan.
    • -Both the Mahdi and Khomeini claimed to be divinely inspired.
    • -Both placed emphasis on religious purification.
    • -Each sought to establish states on Islamic precepts.
  17. From 1948 South African politics was dominated by
    The Nationalist Party
  18. Backed by the Indians, the East Pakistanis won a war of secession that led to the establishment of the independent nation of __________ in 1972.
  19. Third World leaders have been quite ready to blame the legacy of colonialism and what they have termed the "__________" structure of the global economy for failure of their development schemes.
  20. Loans from international lending agencies have almost invariably been granted only after needy nations agree to what are called "__________."
  21. No military leader was more radical with regard to social and economic reform than Egypt's __________, who came to power in 1952.
    Gamal Abdul Nasser
  22. The revolutionary organization, the __________, led by Hasan al-Banna was committed to a fundamentalist approach to Islam and sweeping social reform.
    Muslim Brotherhood
  23. The __________ movement evolved from a secret organization established by officers in the Egyptian army in the 1930s.
    Free Officers
  24. In July of 1952, an almost bloodless military coup toppled the corrupt khedive __________ from the Egyptian throne.
  25. Nasser's greatest foreign policy coup came in 1956, when he rallied international opinion to oust the British from the __________ Zone.
    Suez Canal
  26. Even the __________ Dam project, which was the cornerstone of Nasser's development drive, was something of a disaster.
  27. Nasser's successor, __________ had little choice but to dismantle the massive state apparatus that had been created.
    Anwar Sadat
  28. During the first decades of its freedom, India had the good fortune to be governed by __________ and his allies in the Congress Party.
    Jawaharlal Nehru
  29. Improved seed strains, fertilizers, and irrigation are at the heart of the __________ Revolution.
  30. In many respects, the Iranian revolution of 1979 under __________ represents a throwback to the religious fervor of anticolonial movements such as the Mahdist revolt in Sudan.
    Ayatollah Khomeini
  31. Racial separation was organized on a grander scale in South Africa by the creation of numerous __________, each designated for the main ethnolinguistic groups within the black African population.
  32. Black organizations like the __________ were declared illegal, and African leaders were shipped off to maximum-security prisons.
    African National Congress
  33. The freeing of __________ in 1990 gives some hope that white South Africans may be willing to compromise on the question of civil rights for blacks.
    Nelson Mandela