Urinary Bladder- Stores urine, composed of smooth muscle (females have smaller capacity)
Urethra- B Muscular tube that connects urinary bladder to an external opening. Sphincter muschles are under voluntary control and allow us to choose when we want to pee
Structures of a Nephron
Blood supply is brought in through a network of capillaries called the Glomerulus . A cupe like structure surrounds the glomerulus called the bowmans capsule. A series of tubes extends from the capsule proximal tubule-->the the loop of henle--> the the distal tubule-->collecting duct
How ADH control dilute vs concentrated urine
*With more ADH presence, the collecting duct is more permeable to water and therefore urine is more concentrated.
*With ADH absent, salt is reabsorbed without water and urine is more dilute
*ADH is secreted when solute concentrations in blood are high (you need more water)
Which sphincters are involved in voluntary vs involuntary urine release
External sphincter is involved in voluntary and internal sphincter is involuntary
Causes for the following urinary problems or diseases: renal failure, kidney stones, urinary tract infections
Renal failure- Acute- Low blood pressure, large kidney stones, infections, severe injuries, and toxic drugs Chronic - leads to long term irreversible damage
Kidney Stones- minerals crystalize
UTI- microbes and/or infection present in any part of the urinary system.
A) Name of male reproductive organ responsible for producing sperm and B) name of male hormone responsible for male econdary sex characteristics
A) When does egg production occur in women? B)What are fimbraie? C) What happens to the cells of the follicle after ovulation?
A) Egg production occurs before a woman is born.
B) Fimbraie are finger like projections that help move the egg to the oviduct.
C) Old follicle enlarges and becomes yellow in color( known as corpus luteum) which secretes progesterone and degenerates if pregnancy does not occur.
Role of FSH and LH in males and females
Female: FSH stimulates the follicle to secrete the hormone estrogen. It also helps toward regulating the menstrual cycle. LH levels surge and triggers ovulation. LH also turns the follicle into a corpus luteum; this corpus luteum will then release progesterone
Males:FSH, along with testosterone, is needed for production of sperm. LH triggers testes to produce and secrete testosterone for sperm production.
Stages of human sexual response (male)
1. Excitment:pleasurable sensations from the penis=Erection (blood fills)
2 . Plateau: occurs when arousal continues as a result of additional stimuli
3. Orgasm- reflex act that accomplishes ejeaculation (release of semen)
4. resolution- the erection goes down, breathing and heart rate return to normal
Stages of sexual response (female)
1. Excitment- blood cessels in labia, clitoris, and nipples are dialated and labia becomes lubricated
3. Orgasm consists of rhythmic, involuntary muscle contractions but is not required for fertilization and varies more widely in intensity, duration and frequency then in males
4. resolution -back to normal
How long can sperm live in female reproductive tract? Where, in the female, does fertilization occur?
Some sperm stay alive for up to 5 days
Egg is fertilized in oviduct.
Which birth control is most effective and least effective
Most effective= abstinense
Least effective= Withdrawal and periodic abstinence
Understand how an IUD, diaphragm and sponge work to prevent pregnancy
IUD- Inserted into uterus, cause chronic inflammation preventing implantation
Diaphragm- latex covers cervical opening and prevents sperm from entering uterus
Sponge- blocks cervix and has spermicide
What contribute to male and female infertility?
males- low testosterone levels, immune disorders that attack sperm, radiation, drugs such as anabolic steroids, and diseases such as mumps and gonorrhea
*Pelvic inflammatory disease: bacterial
infection that causes scarring of reproductive organs
*Endometriosis: endometrial tissue grows
up oviduct and implants on other organs
*Age related infertility: run out of eggs
and/or have many damaged eggs by mid forties
*Spontaneous abortion: miscarriage; when
pregnancy occurs but fails to thrive
How does GIFT help solve fertility issues?
The egg and sperm are inserted directly
into an oviduct immediately after collection
Which STDs are viral vs bacterial?
Bacterial= Gonorrhea, Syphilis, Chlamydia
Viral=HIV (virus that causes AIDS), hepatitis B, and genital herpes and warts.
Which is the most dangerous STD? the most common?
•Chlamydia is the common of all STDs
•Syphilis is the most dangerous
What is the best means to prevent the spread of STDs?
•Know your partner -monogamous relationships are the best defense against STDs