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Why did Charlemagne distrust the pope's motives in crowning Charlemagne as Holy Roman Empire?
By crowning him emperor, it established the Pope the significant prescendent that only the Pope could confer the imperial crown.
How could Charlemagne creat such a powerful empire?
- He established a network of local administrators to supervise courts, collect tolls, administer crown lands, and extract taxation.
- He also createad a new coinage system
What were the Vikings known for doing?
- Starting in 790, they attacked the coastal ports of northern Europe
- Their desire for profit through plunder, ransom, tribute collection, and slaving
King of the Franks from 768 and Roman Emperor from 800 until his death in 814
The second founder of the Frankish state.
Sought to reform the Frankish church.
A cultural and intellectual flowering that took place around the Carolingian royal courts.
A loose term reflecting the political and economic situation in the 11th and 12th century Europe.
In this system, lords owned agricultural labor and military service by their serfs, and in turn owed allegiance to more powerful lords and kings
Duke of French Normandy who crossed the English Channel and defeated Harold for the English throne in 1066.
Imposed a centralized feudal system on England and introduced French as the official language
William the Conqueror
Series of wars undertaken to free Jerusalem and the Holy Lands from Muslim control
Why were the Crusades launched?
Dominant motive was religious
In France, the royal house that succeeded the Carolingians which developed feudalism.
Why was the Magna Carta an important step in the political evolution of England in the Middle Ages?
It was an expression of the principle that the kind is bound by the law.
Document signed by Kind John of England in 1215, which limited the king's fiscal power and is seen as a landmark in the political evolution of the West
King that signed the Magna Carta
King John I of England
What was Scholasticism?
An intellectual system that sought to reconcile classical Greek philosophy with Christian faith through reason.
Member of the Dominican order and the most prominent scholastic theologian at the University of Paris
Saint Thomas Acquinas
16th century deadly illness that spread from Mongolia to China, northern India, the Middle East, and the Crimea and then spread throughout western Europe along the trade routes, first striking the seaports, then moving inland.
- Black Death:
- pandemic outbreak from the microbe responsible for bubonic plague
Why was Joan of Arc burned at the stake?
She was accused of witchcraft and tried for heresy
The largest, longest, and most wide-ranging military conflict of the later Middle Ages. England and France were the major protagonists
The Hundred Years' War
What caused the rise of national monarchies in the Middle Ages?
The kings were all actively engaged in constructing a sense of national identity among their people and in focusing that identity on themselves, which produced a stronger monarchy.
Nomadic people that were highly accomplished cavalry soldiers and would raid other countries.
Englishman who wrote Canterbury Tales
"rebirth" of classical culture following a long period during which that culture had been essentially dead
A program of studies that aimed to replace the 13th and 14th century scholastic emphasis on logic and metaphysics with the study of language, literature, rhetoric, history and ethics
Why did the Renaissance begin in Italy?
In the later Middle Ages Italy was the most advanced urban society in all of Europe
Greatest Florentine artists, one of the most versatile geniuses.
Masterpieces such as The Last Supper, Mona Lisa, Virgin of the Rocks
Leonardo da Vinci
A native of Florence whose greatest achievement was in the painting of the Sistine Chapel in Rome. Also was the sculptor of David
One of the most beloved artist of the Renaissance.
Masterpiece includes the School of Athens
What was the role of the church in the Renaissance?
Christian humanists' shared the Italian humanists" views for scholasticism but looked for more ethical guidance from biblical and religious precepts.
German monk whose personal quest for a more certain understanding of sin, grace and Christian salvation set off a chain reaction thourghout Europe
Remissions of the penances owed by Catholics as part of the process by which their sins are forgiven
French-born Protestant theologian who stressed the predestination of all human beings according to God's will.
A former Catholic priest from Zurich.
Joined Luther and Calvin in attacking the authority of the Catholic Church.
Believed that the Eucharist conferred no grace at all
What was the impact of the Council of Trent on the Catholic Church?
It ended by reaffirming all of the Catholic doctrinal tenets challenged by Protestant critics.
God's justice does not demand endless good works and religious rituals for salvation, because humans can never be saved by their own efforts. Humans are saved by God's grace alone
Salvation by Faith
Portuguese noble who encouraged conquest of western Africa and trade in gold and slaves
Prince Henry the Navigator
Spanish word, which applied to European leaders of campaigns against indigenous peoples in central and southern America
THe Italian sailor who persuaded King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain to fund his expedition across the Atlantic to discover a new trade route to Asia.
Instead he reached the Bahamas and the island of Hispaniola in 1492
How did the discovery of other world societies change Europe's view of itself?
The explosing consumer economy spurred the demand for manufactured goods. Houses became larger and more striking, even the houses of relatively ordinary people.