final exam

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Anonymous
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final exam
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2012-05-05 02:26:48
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anatomy physiology
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chapters on endocrine, female and male reproductive organs
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  1. stimulates the calcium and phosphate ions by the intestines
    calcitriol
  2. regulates mood, appetite, and behavior
    seratonin
  3. stimulates heart rate, triggers stress
    epinephrine aka adrenaline
  4. releases adrenocorticotropic hormone
    corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH)
  5. stimulates the secretion of aldosterone
    angiotensin
  6. decreases urine volume and increases blood pressure
    antidiuretic hormone (ADH) aka vasopressin
  7. elevates muscle tone, increases alertness, feeling of enery and euphoria with a temporary insensitivity to painful stimuli
    catecholamines
  8. acts on cells to increase in size and speed up cell division increases protein synthesis and lipolysis
    human growth hormone (HGH)
  9. in males inhibits FSh and LH, in femals inhibits FSH at the end of the menstral cycle
    inhibin
  10. forms glucose fromm glycogen raises blood sugar
    glucagon
  11. stimulates growth of uterus, breast tissue, inhibt active milk production, relax pelvic ligaments, maturationat puberty
    estrogen
  12. releases during allergic reaction
    histamine
  13. releases FSH and LH
    gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)
  14. produces red blood cells by stimulating the bone marrow
    erythropoietin (EPO)
  15. maintains the corpus luteum
    HCG
  16. regulates the gonads, in females- controls development of ovum ovulation and the levels of progesterone and estrogen, males- initiate spermatogenesis
    Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
  17. stops the release of HGH, produced by delta cells
    gorwth hormone inhibiting hormone(GHIH) aka somatostatin
  18. regulates pancreatic, inhibits GHIH
    pancreatic polypeptide
  19. used to balance concentrations of minerals and water
    mineralcorticoids
  20. affects uterus and breast causing contraction of smooth muscle, used for labor breasts used for lactation
    oxytocin (OT)
  21. releases prolactin
    prolactin releasing hormone (PRH)
  22. acts to not release MSH
    MSH inhibiting hormone (MIH)
  23. regulates sleep pattern
    melatonin
  24. increases skin pigmentation
    melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH)
  25. relax's pubic, and dilate urterine cervix
    relaxin
  26. inhibits the secretionof insulin and glucagon
    insulin
  27. form CD8 cells and CD4 cells
    • thymopoietin
    • thymosin
    • thymic factor (TF)
    • thymic humoral factor (THF)
  28. stimulates milk production
    prolactin
  29. secondary sex cells, produce inhibin which ingibits secretion of FSh
    testosterone
  30. gland that is both exocrine and endocrine
    pancreas
  31. most important acts to balance sodium levels
    aldosterone
  32. gonadicorticoid another name for it
    androgen
  33. moon face, disturbed carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism and increase blood volume and pressure, obesity of the truck sparing the distal limbs
    cushing's disease
  34. very tall, (excessive height)
    gigantism (hypersecretion)
  35. low blood sugar
    hypoglycemia
  36. when days do the menstral occur
    1-5 days
  37. maintains temperature control
    cremaster muscle
  38. purpose of sertoli cells
    act to isolate the sperm from blood
  39. what inhibits ADH
    alcohol
  40. enlarged thyroid
    grave's disease
  41. composes the external genitalia
    penis
  42. anchors your ovaries to your dorsal pelvic wall
    suspensory ligament
  43. site of conception happens in the ____
    fallopian tubes
  44. site of menstration happens in the _____
    uterus
  45. the purpose of the vagina
    birth canal
  46. innermost layer of the vagina
    endometrium
  47. gland of female secretes mucous and is in the males as the prostate gland
    skeens gland
  48. how long is the window which fertilitzation may occur
    3 days
  49. hollow space of blastocyte
    bastocele
  50. regulates temperature
    amnion
  51. fetus forms in what month
    3rd month
  52. dilation of cervix occurs for _____
    6-12 hrs
  53. complete dilation is ___
    10cm
  54. fine hair that covers the fetus's body
    languo
  55. thymospoietin, thymosin, thymic humoral factor(thf), and thymic factor (TH) are in the
    thymus gland
  56. serotonin, dopamine, histamine, amd melatonin are in the
    pineal gland
  57. glucagon, insulin, somatostatin (GHIH), and pancreatic polypeptide are in the
    pancreas
  58. produce glucagon
    alpha cells
  59. produce insulin
    beta cells (amylin cells)
  60. produce somatostatin GHIH
    delta cells
  61. produce pancreatic polypeptide
    gamma cells
  62. GHRH, GHIH, TRH, CRH, GnRH, PRH, PIH, MSH releasing hormone (MRH), MSH inhibiting hormone (MIH), oxytocin (OT), and antidiuretic hormone (ADH) are in the
    hypothalmus
  63. thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine(T3), and calcitonin are in the
    thyroid gland
  64. parathyroid hormone (PTH) is in the
    parathryoid gland
  65. testosterone, inhibin, estrogen, progesterone, and relaxin are in the
    gonads (ovaries and testes)
  66. thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), human growth hormone (hGH), prolactin (PRL), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and melanoctye stimulating hormone (MSH) are in the
    pituitary gland
  67. erythropoietin (EPO), calcitriol, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) are in the
    heart and kidneys
  68. mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, gonadicorticoids, epinephrine aka adrenaline, and norepinephrine aka noradrenaline are in the
    adrenal gland
  69. hyperpigmented skin, muscluar weakness, weight loss, loss of appetite and hypotension are the effects of
    addisons disease
  70. failure of skeletal growth, mental retardation, yellowish skin, retarded sexual development are the effects of
    cretinism
  71. excretion of a large bolume of extremely dilute urine
    diabetes insipidus
  72. a disorder of the pancreas resulting form failure to secrete insulin or ineffeicient uilization of insulin, some of this glucose appears in the urine
    diabetes mellitus
  73. retarded growth and development
    dwarfism
  74. a condition usually due to accidental removal of the parathyroid glands during surgery, resultsin muscle tetany
    hyperparathyroidism
  75. symptoms include sweating anxiety tremor and increase heart rate hunger and weakness
    hypoglycemia
  76. causes metabolic slowing sympotms include bloated face, thickened, dry skin sparse coarse hair, muscular weakness, menatl lethargy, cold intolerance and hoarseness
    myxedema
  77. emotional disorder in which mood swings are exaggrated dur to changes in sunlight, irritability, sleepiness, anxiety, insatiable appetite and being socially withdrawn
    seasonal affective disorder (SAD)
  78. due to the over production of adrenal sex hormones, causes maculinization in females with excess male hormones and feminizationin males with excess femal sex hormone production
    virilism
  79. which of these is not a hormone of the thymus gland
    thymopoietin
    thyrotropin
    THf
    TF
    thyrotropin
  80. these types of cells produce insulin
    t cells
    delta cells
    alpha cells
    beta cells
    gamma cells
    beta cells
  81. gonadotropin releaning hormone (gnRH)
    release FSH and LH
    releases gonaotropin
    release prolactin
    inhibits prolactin
    none of the above
    release FSH and LH
  82. this hormone produced in the hypothalmus effects the uterus and breasts causing contration of smooth muscles
    MSh releasing hormone
    oxytocin
    estrogen
    progesterone
    oxytocin
  83. which of these inhibits ADH production
    urine
    potassium
    alcohol
    creatinine
    alcohol
  84. which of the following is converted to Triiodothyronine to stimulate glucose oxidation
    thymosin
    thyroid stimulating hormone
    thyroid releasing hormone
    thyroxine
    thyroxine
  85. suckling of a child on a females breast stimulates the formation of this hormone
    ACTh
    estrogen
    prolactin (PRL)
    testoserone
    prolactin
  86. this hormone is produced by the right atrium of the heart to suppress the relase of ADH and aldosterone
    rennin
    atrial naturetic peptide (ANP)
    angiotensin
    calcitriol
    ANP
  87. this layer of the adrenal cortex produces glucocorticoids
    zona glomerulosa
    zona fasciculate
    zona glucocorticoids
    none of the above
    zona fasciculate
  88. this hormone is used to balance concentrations of minerals and water
    antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
    prolactin
    melanocyte stimulating hormone
    mineralcorticoids
    none of the above
    mineralocorticoids
  89. this disease is characterized by disturbed carbohydrate, fat and proetin metabolism, increased blood volume and blood pressure
    addisons disease
    diabetes insipidus
    cushings disease
    none of the above
    cushings disease
  90. a patient comes into your office with an enlarged thyroid and protruding eyes she is suffering from
    graves disease
    gigantism
    myxedema
    hyperparathryoidism
    graves disease
  91. the cremaster muscle of the testes
    separates the two testes
    carries sperm
    produces sperm
    controls the temperature of the testes
    controls the temperature of the testes
  92. the following isolate the sperm from the blood since antigens on spermatozoa are foregin to the immune system
    sertoli cells
    spermatids
    straight tubes
    pampiniform plexus
    sertoli cells
  93. which of the following does not make up the spermatic cord
    cremaster muscle
    nerves
    blood vessels
    efferent ducts
    all of the above
    efferent ducts
  94. true or false
    the ejaculatroy ducts are extensions of the vas deferens
    true
  95. fructose is a secretion of the prostate gland true or false
    false
  96. prostaglandins neuralize acidic conditons in the vagina true or false
    false
  97. the crura is also known as the foreskin on the end of the penis
    true or false
    false
  98. the tunica vaginalis is the outermost part of the testes whcih is mad of serous membranes true or false
    true
  99. CD 8+ cells are
    killer cells
  100. CD4+ cells are
    helper cells
  101. outermost and will produce mineralocorticoids
    zona glomerulosa
  102. middle layer and produces glucocorticoids
    zona fasciculata
  103. innner most layer and produces both glucocorticoids and gonadocorticoids
    zona reticularis
  104. deals with the development of a primary follicel to form a mature graafian follicle which then undergoes ovulation, concludes with the formationof the corpus albicans, controlled largely by FSH and LH from the anterior pituitary gland
    ovarian cycle
  105. deals with the development of the endometrium liing of the uterus to prepare for the implantation of the zygote, controlled largely by estrogen and progesterone from the corpus luteum of the ovary
    uterine cycle
  106. follicular phase, ovulatory phase, luteal phase are in the __
    ovarian cycle
  107. menstrual phase, proliferative phase and secretory phase are in the ___
    uterine cycle
  108. 1st stage, occurs days 1-10, GnRH from hypothalamus stimulates production of FSH and LH, FSh and LH stimulate primary follicle to develp layers called granulosa dn theca folliculi and form a secondary follicle, the layers of the gnaulosa and theca folliculi begin to secrete estrogen, low levels of estrogen inhibit the relase of FSH and LH, mature follicles nears the edge of the ovary
    follicular phase
  109. days 10-14, higher levels of estrogen stimulate the release of FSH and LH, this causes rapid increase in the amount of FSH and LH, increases in FSH and LH causes rapid development o fthe follicel and ovulation (rupture of follicle) on the 14th day, following ovulationthere is a decrease in estrogen, also decreases in LH and FSH
    ovulatory phase
  110. days 15-28, the LH causes the ruptured follicle to form the corpus luteum, cl produces estrogen and progesterone, then they begin to rise which causes the endometrial lining to thicken, if fertilization doesnt occur the corpus luteum degenerates to form the corpus albicans, this doesnt not produce hormones so estrogen and progesterone levels drop, if fertilization occurs then the chorion and placenta produce HCG which maintains the corpus luteum which in turn contiues to produce estrogen and progesterone to maintain the uterine wall
    luteal phase
  111. days 1-5, hormone levels are very low, thick layer of the endometrium becomes detached from the uterus and sloughs out through the vagina, also at that imte the developing primary follicel begins to produce estrogen (mentrual flow)
    menstrual phase
  112. days 6-14, levels of estrogen increase as follicle develops, lower layers of enometrium, the stratum basalis, is repaired, upper layers of enometrum, straum functionalis, begins to thicken, it becomes filled with endometrial glands and spiral arterioles, cervical mucus is changed to become thin and crystaline to allow passage of sperm
    proliferative phase
  113. days 15-28, increase levels of progesterone from the corpus luterum affects the arterioles and gland in the endometrium, glycogen is secreted into the uterine cavity for the embryo, cervical mucus becomes thicker again to form the cervical plug
    secretory phase
  114. fertilization (aka conception), morula, blastocyte, implantation, gastrulation, embryonic development, fetal development and labor (parturition) are parts of ____
    pregnancy and development
  115. mergins of the genetic material from the spermatozoa and the ooctye, it usually occurs 12-24 hrs after ovulation, viability of sperm is 48 hours, there is a 3 day window which fertilization can occur, normally occurs in the fallopian tubes
    fertilization
  116. changes in the sperm which will allow it to fertilize the ovum, occurs within female reproductive tract, the acrosome membrane will thin out so that the enzymes will be released
    capacitation
  117. the first sperm that arrive at the ovum will partially digest the ______, the outer protective covering and the zona pellucida,the inner layer of the ______
    the ovum is actually fertilized by other sperm
    corona radiata
  118. penetration and entrance to the oocyte this will cause changes in the zona pellucida to prevent any other sperm from entering
    syngamy
  119. ______ is formed consisting of the fertilized ovum, zona pellucida, and cytoplasm
    zygote
  120. two offsprings developed during the same pregnancy
    twins
  121. when two separate ova are fertilized by two separate sperm may or may not be the same sex
    dizygotic twins (fraternal twins)
  122. one ovum is fertilized by one sperm but during futher cell divisions the cells fail to remain together and separate, must be of same gender, will have its own placenta and embryonic membranes, conjoined twins occur when the cells remain joined to some degree
    monozygotic twins (identical twins)
  123. a solid sphere of cells surrounded by the zona pellucida, the zygote will dievide by mitosis to form more and more cells, since division is quick this is little or no increase in the size of the structure, cleavage begins 24 hrs fertilization, _____ is formed 96hr(4days) after conception
    morula
  124. a hollow sphere of cells surrounded by tthe zona pellucida, enters the uterus near the 5th day
    blastocyte
  125. continued divison results in a circle called____
    trophoblast
  126. trophoblasts will form membrane of the placenta
    outercells
  127. embryoblast will form embryo and blastocele will form the 3 germ layers which migrate during gastrulation
    inner cells
  128. hollow spaces are called
    blastocele
  129. the burrowing of the blastocyte into the endometrial walls of the uterus, days 6-7, embryonic membranes will begin to form, outer pellucida is removed
    implantation
  130. trophoblast will form 2 layers
    • endoderm
    • ectoderm
    • bilaminar disc (mesoderm)
  131. near the blastocele
    endoderm
  132. 2 layers of cells nearer the cytotrophoblast, between the layers is the beginning of the amniotic cavity
    ectoderm
  133. name given to the endoderm and the one adjacent layer of the ectoderm together here the mesoderm will form
    bilaminar disc
  134. formation of 3 primary germ layers, ectoderm, endoder, and mesoderm, the embryonic membranes will begin to form, occurs days 8-14 by day 14 the 3 layesr are formed, amniotic cavity will start to fill with fluids
    gastrulation
  135. the ectoderm will form 2 layers with a space between this space becomes the ______
    yolk sac
  136. the stage of development after the formationof the 3 primary germ layers and leads up to the formation of the fetus
    months 1-2 beginning after day 14
    embryonic development
  137. formed from the endoderm and mesoderm, it is the primary source of nourishment in many species, will form part of the gut and produces earliest blood vessels, source of germ cells to form spermatagonia or oogonia
    yolk sac
  138. formed from ectoderm and mesoderm, will almost completely surround the embryo except the umbilical cord, cushions the embryo and regulates temperature, amniotic fluid is first from the filtrated from mothers blood and later fetal urine will be conributed to it
    amnion
  139. removal of fluid sample from amniotic cavity
    amniocentesis
  140. outpouch from the yolk sac, forms the basic structure of the umbilibal cord (whartons jelly and umbilibal arteries and veins), becomes part of urinary bladder
    allantosis
  141. formed for the trophoblast and mesoderm, at first seperated from the amnion and then later fuses with amnion, the membrane will form the chorionic villi to penetrate the anchor into the endometrium, will produce hcg to maintain corpus luteum, will form the placenta
    chorion
  142. all rudiments of the organs and membranes will be formed during the embryonic phase, the vertebral column and canal form, limb buds first form, heart forms and begins beating, systems form, central nervous system forms , brachial arches form gill slits, tail forms
    at the end of the 1st month
  143. eye, eyelids, nose are formed, ossification of bones begin, libms are formed as well as digits, blood vessels form and gill slits and tail degenerate
    at the end of the 2nd month
  144. a fetus is the stage of development occuring after embryonic development and concludes with labor and delivery, during its development the placenta will become very functional, occurs after the 3rd month (end of 1st trimester0
    fetal development
  145. structure formed from maternal and embryonic tissues, the chorion will fuse with the endometrium, exchange of nutrients and waste products between the fetus and mother, the blood is not in direct contact, nutrients from maternal blood will defuse across the capillary membrane and into the fetal veins and vice versa
    placenta
  146. the portion of the endometrium functionalis is in contact with the chorion
    decidua basalis
  147. the portion of the endometrium that covers the embryo and is open to the uterine cavity
    decidua capsilaris
  148. the portion of the endometrium not involved
    decidua parietalis
  149. _____ stores nutrients carbohydrates, proteins calcium and iron
    placenta
  150. eys closed external ears develop ossification continues limbs fully formed heart beat urine formed movement systems develop
    end of the 1st trimester (month 3)
  151. eye lids separate skin wrinkles lanugo covers the body, quickening rapid development of systems (increase in size)
    end of the 2nd trimester (month 6)
  152. at the end of 7th month the infant is capable of survival as a premature baby, 7th month fetus assumes upside down postion, testes descend into scrotum, 9th month lanugo shed, labor begins
    end of the 3rd trimester (month 9)
  153. regular contractions of the uterus and rupturing of the amniotic sac, (6-12 hours)
    dilaion of the cervix
  154. complete cervical dilation to delivery (10 mins. to several hours)
    expulsion
  155. delivery until the after birth is expelled, the contractinos constrict blood vessels torn during delivery to reduce hemorrhage (5-30 min)
    placenta stage
  156. pair of oval shaped structures within the abdominal walls, site for the development of the ovum, will produce female hormones estrogen, progesterone
    ovaries
  157. attaches from the ovary to the uterus
    broad ligaments
  158. anchors your ovaries to the ovary (smaller and thinner)
    ovarian ligaments
  159. anchors your ovaries to your dorsal pelvic wall
    suspensory ligament
  160. primary oocyte-meiosis I, the primary follicle , the primary ooctye develops this and under goes meiosis II and becomes secondary oocyte with a secondary follicle, then it develops into a graafian follicle, this bursts(ovulation) and secondary oocyte will enter oviducts where it matures into ovum the burst graafian follicle forms the corpus luteum this forms scar tissue called corpus albicans
    development of ovum
  161. hair like projections (fibria)
    infundibulum
  162. lined with ciliated epithelial cells to bring ovum down to the uterus, it is usually the site of conception
    uterine tubes (fallopian oviducts)
  163. hollow muscular cavity
    uterus
  164. site of menstration
    site of implantation of zygote
    development of fetus
    uterus
  165. outer layer of uterus
    perimetrium
  166. middle layer of uterus
    myometrium
  167. inner most layer of uterus
    endometrium
  168. massages
    fundus
  169. is the posterior protion of the uterus (a muscle)
    cervix
  170. keeps embryo in fetus
    sphincter muscle
  171. secretes cervical mucus to form alkaline plug
    uterus
  172. between the uterus and the cervix (orifice)
    internal uterus
  173. between cervix and vagina (orifice)
    external uterus
  174. sides of pelvic cavity
    broad ligaments
  175. uterus to the sacrum (back)
    uterosarcal ligament
  176. below broad attach cervix and uterus to pelvic wall
    cardinal ligament
  177. comes from the uterus to the labia majora
    round ligament
  178. muscular tube which will act as a birth canal and a recepticle for the penis during sexual intercourse
    vagina
  179. vascular tissue that covers the opening
    hymen
  180. fat area on top
    labia major
  181. on the inside sebacous
    labia minora
  182. encloses an area
    vestibule
  183. it is composed of sensory nerve structures
    clitoris
  184. hooded by a fold of skin
    prepuce of the clitoris
  185. secrets mucus, fluids during intercourse same as the cowpers gland in males
    bartholins gland
  186. secretes mucus, same as prostate gland in males
    skene's gland
  187. corpus sponginosum in males
    bulb of vestibule

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