History Paper 1

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History Paper 1
2012-05-05 04:13:50
international relations

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  1. WWI Armistice - date requested? date implemented?
    • October 1918: Germany requests armistice
    • 11 November 1918: Armistice
  2. Big Three: Major Aims - George Clemenceau (France)
    • France the main battleground for war; devastated while Germany was left relatively untouched; "weaken Germany" to ensure it never happened again
    • Immense pressure from French public; "make Germany pay"
    • Independent Rhineland state
    • Guarantees of future security - demilitarisation of the Rhineland; severe restrictions on Germany military power
    • France only covered 1/6 of war expenditure through taxation (Britian- 1/3); lost American backing and British assistance to France stopped in March 1919; France left to turn to German reparations
  3. Big Three: Major Aims - David Lloyd-George (Great Britain)
    • Strong Germany to prevent the spread of Bloshevism
    • German navy and colonial threat crushed during war; main war aim already achieved
    • Germany as a strong trading partner
    • Germany should bear war guilt
    • British public anti-German; Lloyd-George promised to punish Germany in campaign
    • Balance of power - prevent France from gaining too much power and attacking Germany
  4. Big Three: Major Aims - Woodrow Wilson (United States)
    • 'Just' punishment
    • Fourteen Points
    • American public unwilling to be involved in Europe
    • Wislon suffering declining popularity back home
    • Wilson regarded himself as a benevolent neighbour sent from the New World to rescue the Old
    • Wilson seen as naive and his ideals out-of-place
  5. Post WWI- four great empires shattered?
    • Imperial Germany; Austria-Hungary; Turkey; Russia
    • Replaced by a number of small new weak states
    • Left Europe vulnerable to the spread of Communism
  6. Post (WWI) War Debt
    • Britain/France in serious debt with the USA
    • Hoped USA would cancel these debts, as they had done the majority of the fighting
    • USA refused to cancel them
    • Britain/France to turn to German reparations to cover debts
  7. Treaty of Versailles - Date? 4 main types of clauses?
    • June 1919
    • Article 231- 'War Guilt' Clause
    • Financial Reparations
    • Military Reparations
    • Territorial Rpearations
  8. Treaty of Versailles: Article 231 - War Guilt
    • Accused Germany of committing acts against 'international morality'
    • Germany and allies sole blame for starting war
    • Most unpopular and humiliating part of the treaty
    • Needed as justification for harsh conditions of the treaty
  9. Treaty of Versailles: Financial Reparations (Ruhr? Danzig? Saarland?)
    • Reparations - May 1921, set as €6.6 billion
    • Profits from Ruhr to France
    • Port of Danzig under League control
    • Profits from Saarland under League control
  10. Treaty of Versailles: Military Reparations
    • Battleships max 6
    • Navy heavily hit during war; many scuttled
    • No tanks, submarines, air force
    • Rhineland occupation by Allied troops for 15 years, then demilitarised
    • 100,000 army max.
    • Anschluss with Austria forbidden
  11. Treaty of Versailles: Territorial Reparations (% land lost, territories lost)
    • 13% of land lost
    • Alsace-Lorraine to France
    • Schleswig-Holstein to Denmark
    • Upper Silesia to Poland
    • Polish corridor to allow Poland access to sea: split Germany in two
    • All German colonies under the League
  12. Treaty of Versalles: Consequences for Germany
    • Germans outraged, expected a 'just peace' following Wilson's points
    • "Only crime had been to lose the war" -- Overy
    • Requested armistice; deserved lenient settlement
    • "Stab in the back" myth born
    • Diktat: dictated peace; Russia nor defeated powers invited to the peace conference
    • Germany claimed it simply could not afford the reparations
    • AJP Taylor, "punitive, but not crippling enough to prevent a backlash from Germany" (can be blamed for Hitler's rise)
    • Surrounded by small states; many consisting of people who have never set up a stable government for themselves; containing large masses of Germans clamouring for reunion with their native land
    • Issue of overturning Versailles would dominate German politics until WWII
    • US/ Italy disassociating themselves with the Treaty
    • France/Britain argued viciously over how to carry it out
    • Settlement drawn up on the assumption that a democratic, republican Germany would cooperate in implementing; Weimar government too weak to secure German consent
    • Britain/France: impose Versailles by force vs. more lenient terms
  13. Treaty of Versailles: Harsh Reparations (Justified?)
    • Germany- superiority in economic resources of coal and steel
    • Post WWI, industry remained largely intact
    • Germany intact amongst several small new weak states
    • New states - Poland, Czechoslovakia, Romania
    • Loss of 13% of German land less harsh than France had suffered at the Congress of Vienna 1814-1815
    • Less harsh than Treaty of Brest Litovsk - Germans imposed upon Russians in March 1918
    • "Brest Litovsk deprived Germany of any moral right to complain of Versailles" - Woods
    • Bulk of her territory intact
    • Regions confiscated were of mixed population; mostly fruits of conquest
    • Spring-Summer 1919 - €5 million spent by Allies on free food/ necessities to Germany
    • Germany in the end only paid 1/8 of total sum
    • €6.6 billion misleading; A,B,C bonds. Allies only intending to collect A/B (50 milliard marks out of 132 milliard marks) - Marks
    • Germany capable of paying the reparations but lacked the will to do so - 1923, chose hyperinflation over reparations
    • Psychological impact of Versailes
    • Received more loans from the USA (not returned) than they paid reparations
    • €6.6 billion (132 milliard gold marks) - already a significant reduction from original suggestion
  14. Treaty of Versailles: (Non-Germany) consequences
    • Italy felt it had not been properly rewarded
    • Japan offended by Western states' refusal to include a clause on racial discrimination in the Covenant (League)
    • Czechoslovakia the only fully functioning democracy in eastern Europe during the inter-war years
    • Eastern Europe more unstable and divided post WWI than before
    • Successor states weak, politically divided, in poor economic condition
    • Settlement over Shandong gave Japan administrative control on the condition that it one day be returned to China - neither side satisfied (contribute to outbreak of war in 1937)
    • To reward and appease wartime allies, self-determination not applied universally