BIOL40C Ch.25 Metabolism

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Author:
daynuhmay
ID:
152284
Filename:
BIOL40C Ch.25 Metabolism
Updated:
2012-05-05 08:57:40
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Metabolism
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Description:
Metabolism
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  1. metabolism
    all chemical reactions in the body
  2. catabolism
    breakdown;

    exergonic (produce more energy than used)
  3. anabolism
    • buildup;
    • endergonic (use more energy than produced)
  4. oxidation
    removal of electrons from an atom/molecule
  5. reduction
    addition of electrons to a molecule
  6. normal blood glucose concentration in a fasting healthy adult
    90mg/100mL
  7. How does the body use glucose?
    oxidation of glucose to produce 36-28 ATP molecules
  8. How does glucose enter the cell?
    GI tract/kidney tubules: Na+/glu transporter

    other tissues: GluTs (special glucose transporters)
  9. cellular respiration
    term for oxidation of glucose to produce ATP
  10. 4 steps in cellular respiration
    • 1) glycolysis
    • 2) formation of acetyl CoA
    • 3) Kreb's cycle
    • 4) electron transport chain
  11. How much ATP, water, and CO2 are generated from 1 molecule of glucose?
    • ATP: 36-38 molecules
    • water: 6 molecules
    • CO2: 6 molecules
  12. glycogenesis
    • - production of glycogen in the liver, skeletal muscles
    • - stimulated by insulin
    • - form of glucose storage
  13. 2 methods of glucose storage
    • 1) glycogenesis
    • 2) conversion to glycerol & FAs in liver, followed by lipid production by adipocytes
  14. 2 methods of glucose release
    • 1) glycogenolysis
    • 2) glugoneogenesis
  15. gluconeogenesis
    formation of glucose from proteins and fats
  16. components of a lipoprotein
    • 1) outer core of proteins, phospholipids, cholesterol
    • 2) inner core of triglycerides
  17. apoproteins
    proteins in outer core of lipoproteins
  18. 4 classes of lipoproteins
    • 1) chylomicrons
    • 2) VLDL
    • 3) LDL
    • 4) HDL
  19. VLDL
    • - formed in hepatocytes from lipids formed in body
    • - converted to LDL
  20. LDL
    • -carry ~75% of total cholesterol in blood
    • - deliver cholesterol to cells for synthesis of steroid hormones/bile salts/insertion into membrane
  21. HDL
    - remove excess cholesterol from body/ prevent cholesterol accumulation
  22. sources of cholesterol
    • 1) some from food
    • 2) most synthesized by hepatocytes
  23. total blood cholesterol concentration
    <200mg/dL
  24. LDL concentration
    <130mg/dL
  25. HDL concentration
    >40mg/dL

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