BIo Sat2 ch9

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Krudge
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152305
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BIo Sat2 ch9
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2012-05-05 12:03:39
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BIo Sat2 ch9
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Plants
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  1. Photosynthesis
    • The process plants use to make energy.
    • 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + energy = 6 O2 + C6H12O6
  2. Epidermis (plants)
    • The outerlayer of the leaf on the top and bottom.
    • Conains the cuticle.
  3. Cuticle
    • A layer of wax on the leaf's epidermis.
    • It protects the leaf from things like fungus.
    • It keeps water in the leaf.
  4. Palisade layer
    • Just under the surface of the leaf.
    • Where most photosynthesis takes place.
  5. Spongy cells
    • They are beneath the palisade layer.
    • They carry out some photosynthesis.
    • Important for gas exchange.
  6. Stomates
    The openings in the bottom surface of the leaf so water and gases can pass through.
  7. Guard cells
    Protect the stomates by opening or closing.
  8. Chloroplast (contents)
    • A double-membraned organelle for photosynthesis.
    • Contain stroma, and thylakoids in grana stacks.
  9. Stroma
    • The inner fluid of the chloroplast.
    • Light-independent reactions occur here.
  10. Thylakoids
    • The flattened out membrane stuctures stacked in grana.
    • They contain the pigments chlorophyll.
    • Light-dependent reactions occur here.
  11. Grana
    The stacks of thylakoids within chloropast.
  12. Chrlorophyll
    The green pigment in chloroplasts used to absorb the sun's energy.
  13. Light-dependent reactions
    • Occur in the thylakoids.
    • They convert solar energy into a usable form of enrgy.
    • A molecule of NADP+ is reduced to the usable NADPH.
    • Water is also split into hydrogen and oxygen ions.
    • H+ ions can be used to make ATP.
  14. Light reactions
    Another name for light-dependent reactions.
  15. Dark reactions
    Another name for light-independent reactions.
  16. Light independent reactions
    • Occurs in the stroma.
    • Ribulose biphosphate containing 5 Carbon atoms gains one more carbon atom.
    • Then it is broken in to two glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P).
    • G3P is used to make glucose and other carbohydrates.
    • The left over G3P is recycled and made back into ribulose biphosphate.
    • Also called the Calvin cycle.
  17. Calvin cycle
    • Occurs in the stroma.
    • Ribulose biphosphate containing 5 Carbon atoms gains one more carbon atom.
    • Then it is broken in to two glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P).
    • G3P is used to make glucose and other carbohydrates.
    • The left over G3P is recycled and made back into ribulose biphosphate.
  18. Carbon fixation
    • Another name for the calvin cycle.
    • Using ATP and NADPH to make glucose.
  19. Xylem
    • The plant tissue that carries water and minerals from the roots to the rest of the plant.
    • Made up of tracheids and vessel elements.
  20. Tracheids
    • Along with vessel elements it makes up Xylem.
    • Xylem carries water and minerals from the roots of a plant to the rest of the plant.
  21. Vessel elements
    • Along tracheids it makes up Xylem.
    • Xylem carries water and minerals from the roots of a plant to the rest of the plant.
  22. Phloem
    • Carries food from the leaves to the rest of the plants.
    • Contains sieve cells, and companion cells.
    • Sieve cells actually transport the food.
    • Companion cells help sieve cells with metabolic functions.
  23. Sieve cells
    • Along with companion cells they make up phloem.
    • Phloem carries food from the leaves to the rest of the plants.
    • Sieve cells actually transport the food.
  24. Companion cells
    • Along with seive cells they make up phloem.
    • Phloem carries food from the leaves to the rest of the plants.
    • Companion cells help sieve cells with metabolic functions.
  25. Stamen
    • The male part of flowering plants.
    • Made of anthers and filaments.
    • They produce pollen.
  26. Anther
    • Part of the Stamen of flowering plants.
    • Makes pollen.
  27. Filament
    • Part of the Stamen of floering plants.
    • Supports the anther.
  28. Pollen
    • Made by the anther.
    • It consists of microspores, and mature pollen grains can divide into two sperm cells per cell.
  29. Microspores
    • The basic units of pollen.
    • Microspores----> plant sperm basis.
  30. The pistil
    • The female part of flowering plants.
    • Contains tje stigma, style ovule and ovary.
    • Produce seeds and fruit.
  31. Stigma
    • Part of the Pistil.
    • Pollen grains fall into the stigma and the pollen germinates here.
  32. Style
    • Part of the Pistil.
    • Pollen grains fall into the stigma and the pollen germinates here.
  33. Ovule
    • Part of the pistil.
    • After travelling down the pollen tube the two sperm reach the ovary and ovule.
    • The egg and polar bodies in the ovule are fertilized.
    • They become the embryo and endosperm.
    • Then the entire ovule becomes a seed.
  34. Ovary
    • After travelling down the pollen tube the two sperm reach the ovary and ovule.
    • After the ovule forms a seed, the ovary turns into a fruit.
    • The fruit protects the seed.
  35. Megaspores
    The cells formed by the ovule that become the egg and polar bodies.

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