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__ refers to the mechanical and chemical breakdown of foods so that nutrients can be absorbed by cells.
The __ carries out the process of __.
- digestive system
The digestive system consists of the __, leading from the __ to __, and several accessory organs (__4__) whose __ aid the process of digestion.
pancreas, gall bladder, liver, salivary glands
The __ is a muscular tube about __ meters long that passes through the body's __.
The wall of the alimentary canal consists of the same __ layers throughout its length, with only slight vatiations according to the functions of specific sections of the canal.
The layers from inner to outer are __ (4)__.
The type of tissue is __. What are the extensions called? What do they do? WHich layer are they found in?
increase surface area
The inner layer of the alimentary canal is the __, which is lined with __ attached to __.
What does it do?
epithelium (simple columnar)
protects tissues of the canal and carries on secretion and absorption
The next layer of the alimentary canal is the __, which is made up of __ housing __ and __.
What does it do?
loose connective tissue
blood and lymph vessels
nourishes the surrounding layers of the canal
The __ consists of __ and __ that do what?
- muscular layer
- inner circular fibers
- outer longitudinal fibers
- propel food through the canal
THe outer layer of the alimentary canal, or __, is composed of __ that does what?
protects underlying tissues and secretes serous fluid to keep the canal from sticking to other tissue in the abdominal cavity
Movements of the Tube
1) The motor functions of the alimentary canal are of two types __ and __.
2) __ occur when smooth muscles contract rhythmically in small sections of the tube.
3) __ include a wavelike motion called __, which is caused by __ behind a mass of food as relaxation allows the mass to enter the next segment of the tube.
1) mixing movements/ propelling movements
2) mixting movements
3) propelling movements/ peristalsis/ contraction
The __ is the first portion of the alimentary canal.
What is its function?
to receive food and begins mechanical digestion by mastication
Cheeks and Lips
1) Cheeks form the __ of the mouth.
2) The lips are highly __ that surround the mouth __.
3) The lips are __ and help to __ and __.
1) lateral walls
2) mobile structures/ opening
3) highly sensitive/ judge the temperature and texture of food
1) The __ is a thick, muscular organ covered by __and housing __ within __; it is attached to the __ of the mouth by the __.
2) The __ also provide __ for moving food around in the mouth.
3) __ are located at the __ of the tongue.
1) tongue/ mucous membrane/ taste buds/ papillae/ floor/ frenulum
2) papillae/ friction/
3) Lingual tonsils/ root
1) The __ forms the roof of the __ and has an __ and __.
2) The __ function to __ off the __ during __.
3) Associated with the __ in the back of the mouth are __, which help to __.
4) __ are on the posterior wall of the __, above the border of the __.
1) palate/ oral cavity/ anterior hard palate/ posterior soft palate
2) soft palate and uvula/ close/ nasal cavity/ swallowing
3) palate/ palatine tonsils/ protect the body against infection
4) Pharyngeal tonsils (adenoids) pharynx/ soft palate
1) __ sets of teeth develop in sockets within the __ of the __ and __ bones.
2) The __ are shed in the order they appeared and are replaced by __.
3) THrough the actions of __, teeth break food into smaller pieces, beginning __.
4) Different teeth are adapted to handle food in different ways, and include __, __, __, and __.
5) Each tooth consists of a __ and a __, and is made of __, __, __, __, __, and __.
60 A tooth is held tight in its socket by a __.
1) two/ alveolar processes/ maxillary/ mandibular
2) twenty primary teeth/ 32 secondary teeth
3) chewing/ mechanical digestion
4) incisors, cuspids, bicuspids, molars
5) crown/ root/ enamel/ dentin/ pulp/ cementum/ nerves/ blood vessels
6) periodontal ligament
the __ secrete __, which __, __, __, __ and __.
moistens food particles
binds them together
helps to cleanse the mouth adn teeth
begins carbohydrate digestion
Salivary glands contain __ that produce a watery fluid with __, and __ that produce __.
Salivary glands receive __ that triggers the production of a large volume of saliva at the __.
serous cells/ amylase/ mucous cells/ lubricating and binding mucus
parasympathetic stimulation/ sight or smell of food
The __, lying in front of the __, are the largest of the major __; they secrete a clear, watery fluid rich in __.
The __, located on the floor of the __, secrete a more __.
The __, inferior to the __, are the __ of the major salivary glands and secrete __ that is thick and stringy.
parotid glands/ ear/ salivary glands/ amylase
submandibular glands/ mouth/ viscous fluid
sublingual glands/ tongue/ saliva