Final for Perspectives

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  1. who is known as the father of existentialism? Why?
    Kierkegaard. He tries to answer the questions what does it mean to exist and make choices. Choices have consequences and choices are filled with anguish, fear and trembling.
  2. What is the highest good for K?
    salvation of soul; religious life (commitment and relationship to God) is the best life. We all have ethical responsiblity for our choices, ethics will get in the way of pleasure.
  3. what are the two knights for K?
    Knight of faith (given up what he loves most but believes that he will get them back in their fullness) and knight of infinite resignation
  4. What are the three stages for K?
    • Aesthetics (material goods and bodily pleasures)
    • Ethics (commitment to a standard)
    • religious: committing oneself to God
  5. How does one move from aesthetics to ethical?
    Life of pleasure becomes banal, empty and no longer pleasurable, sets condition for possibility of livng the life by soemthing higher
  6. Why move for the ethical to religious life for Kierkegaard?
    there is problem of sin in the ethical life. The experience of not consistently be ethical. Luther was constantly consumed by guilt; everything he did, he always fell short, this moved him to start thinking about justification in a new way (think about Scripture)
  7. What is the absurd leap of faith?
    • It is absurd b/c it is against our objective reason; one can make a commitment over this desiccated form of rationalism. K uses absurd in a hyperbolic positive way. Person of faith thinks it is a rational point of view. From the rationalist point of view, faith is irrational
    • Disenchantment of the universe
  8. what is disenchantment of the universe?
    universe loses wonder, everything is understood as mechanic operations. Enlightment thinks think reason can control, and solve all problems and that religious faith is mere superstituion. K is anti-enlightenment. K believes that what is lost is wthat we are existential creatures; we are born, we struggle, and we die. We must make choices, a lot easier to just join the herd instead of choosing to be something and experience what that is like. Reason doesn't give all the answers
  9. what is K trying to recover?
    individualism; recovery of the totality of what it means to be an indivdiuals; our history, the context of our lives, our freedom and our capacity to choose
  10. what is self-hood for K
    a journey to know thyself. Selfhood is understood as what you should be as human being; in order to be fully human, all sorts of things need to be realized; one of them is the capacity to choose and choose in such a way that you can experience the anxiety of that choice
  11. how does K contast Kant?
    There is a higher good than duty for K. Kant believes that duty is the highest which cuts out any kind of religious possibilities
  12. what is left out in Abraham's story?
    anguish and sense of betrayal of the experience; he is giving up what he loves most and God's promise to him
  13. How is Abraham hidding his plan analogous to K's ideals?
    Abe approaches his problem alone; experience of being alone in this choice. If we are taking our choices seriously in the end of it all you are the one that has to choose. You are utterly aone, you make the hcoice and you must bear the responsibilty for that choice
  14. What kind of plots are the Abraham story? and Why?
    sits in the tension between comedic and tragic; in the end it is comic. Comic b/c obstacles are overcome (evil overcome by goodness, reinstituted into community and community becomes whole and future becomes possibility); God prevails; Issac as the son of the nation, possibility of future. everything is restored as it ought to. Promise is renewed.
  15. describe the tragic plot line
    everybody dies, obstacles does not dissolve, fatal flaw; cosmo has moral order that is disturbed, someone has to die to pay for it; weakness is what results from their demise; something lost and never realized
  16. Describe the romantic plot line
    Hero, someone in distress, the story of medieval chivarly, quests, questing for something. In tragedy, quest is denied. In romance, quest is ralized, good triumphs over evil, hero overcomes all conquests. There are characters with extraordinary talents to overcome obstacles and realize their quest.
  17. Describe the satiric plot line.
    Pokes fun at quest stories, what you long to achieve will never happen; characters are ordinary beings;; their flaws are what dominate, they are clueless, subject toforces outside their control; help kept captive by forces they don't know where they come from, forces have control; hunger for something greater in life will not be realized
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Final for Perspectives
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