PSY - Consciousness

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jtambaoan
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15236
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PSY - Consciousness
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2010-04-25 19:45:40
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psychology
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PSY - Consciousness
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  1. Consciousness´╗┐
    Personal awareness of mental activities, internal sensations, and the external environment.
  2. William James
    Influential American psychologist who described consciousness as a "stream" or "river," meaning that although always changing, consciousness is perceived as unified and unbroken, much like a stream.
  3. Why was research on consciousness abandoned?
    Psychologist said fuck introspection. Because self-reports were not objectively verifiable, many of the leading psychologists at the turn of the 20th century rejected the study of consciousness and focused on overt behavior.
  4. Circadian Rhythm
    A cycle or rhythm that is roughly 24 hours long; they cyclical daily fluctuation in biological and psychological processes.
  5. Suprachiasmatic Nucleus (SCN)
    A cluster of neurons in the hypothalamus in the brain that governs the timing of circadian rhythms.
  6. The role of suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is...
    To control and act as an internal pacemaker that governs the timing of circadian rhythms, including sleep-wake cycle.
  7. Melatonin
    A hormone manufactured by he pineal gland that produces sleepiness.
  8. Free-running conditions are created by...
    The absence of of environmental time cues like sunlight and clocks. They have 2 distince effect: First, in the absence of normal light darkness, and other time cues, people tend to drift to the natural rhythm of SCN, which is approximately a 25-hour day, and consequently people go to sleep about an hour later each night. Second, circadian thythms lose their normal synchronization with one another.
  9. Electroencephalograph
    An instrument that uses electrodes placed on the scalp to measure and record the barin's electrical measure and record the brains electriacl activity and produces an electroencephalogram (EEG).
  10. By studying EEGs, sleep researchers have established that...
    Brain-wave activity systematically changes throughout sleep.
  11. Beta brain waves are associated with...
    Being alert and awake and are small, fast brain waves. Alpha brains waves are associated with drowsiness and relaxation and are slightly larger and slower that beta waves.
  12. Hypnagogic Hallucinations
    Vivid sensory phenomena that occur during the onset of sleep.
  13. The 4 NREM sleep stages are characterized by different brain and body activity.
    Stage 1 NREM: a mixture of alpha and theta waves, lasts only a few min and is a transitional stage from wakefulness to being asleep.

    Stage 2 NREM: the appearance of sleep spindles, K complexes, and mainly theta brain waves with perhaps a few delta waves.

    Stage 3 & 4 NREM: delta brain-wave activity (20% in stage 3, and 50% in stage 4); in combinations these stages are referred to as slow-wave sleep.
  14. REM sleep is characterized by...
    Increased brain activity(smaller, faser brain waves), activation of visual and motor neurons dreaming suppresssion of voluntary muscle activity, and considerable physiological arousal.
  15. Sleep deprivation studies demonstrate that...
    We have a biological need to sleep; after a day or more without sleep we experience disruptions in mood, mental abilities, reation time, perceptual skills, and complex motor skills. They will also experience rebound effects if allowed to sleep undisturbed.
  16. The phenomena of REM and NREM rebound seem to indicate that...
    The brain needs to make up for missing components of sleep.
  17. The restorative theory of sleep suggests that...
    Sleep promotes physiological processes that restore and rejuenate the body and mind.
  18. The adaptive theory of sleep suggests that...
    Sleep patterns exhibited by different animals, including humans, are the result of evolutionary adaptations and that different sleep patterns evolved as a way of preventing a particular species from interacting with the environemtn when it may be dangerous to do so.
  19. REM sleep
    Type of sleep during which rapid eye movements and dreaming usually occur and voluntary muscle activity is suppressed; also called active sleep or paradoxial sleep.
  20. NREM sleep
    Quiet, typically dreamless sleep in which rapid eye movement are absent; divided into 4 stages;l also called quiet sleep.
  21. Beta Brain Waves
    Brain-wave pattern associated with relaxed wakefulness and drowsiness.
  22. Sleep Spindles
    Short burst of brain activity that characterize stage 2 NREM sleep.
  23. K Complex
    Single but large high-voltage spike of brain activity that characterizes stage 2 NREM sleep.
  24. Sleep disorders
    Serious disturbances in the normal sleep pattern that interfere with daytime functioning and cause subjective distress.
  25. Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS)
    A condition in which unpleasant sensations in the lower legs are accompanied by an irresistible urge to move the legs, temporarily relieving the unpleasant sensation but disrupting sleep.
  26. Parasomnias
    A category of sleep disorder characterized by arousal or activation during sleep or sleep transitions; includes sleepwalking night terrors, sleep bruxism, sleep=ralted eating disroder, and REM sleep behavior.
  27. Cataplexy
    A sudden loss of voluntary muscle strength and control that is usually triggered by an intense emotion.

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