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- What was the role of religion in social relations among North and West European Americans during the colonial period?
- Religious differences caused social problems more frequently than did nationality differences during this period. Although they themselves came seeking religious freedom, many were intolerant of others with different religious beliefs. The Presbyterians , babtist , Quakers, German Reformed, and Lutherans along the "frontier" were intolerant of one another but they shared a strong dislike of Anglicans. Religious clashes in the 18th century were not uncommon. Aminosity between England-loyalist Anglicans and England-hating Scots-Irish Presbyterians was common. Even though many colonist shared a common nationality, religious intolerance created wide cultural gulls and social distance among the various denominations.
What is "civic culture" ? What did it include?
With a common language and history, though, they soon coalesced into what Lawrence H. Fuchs calls a "civic culture." This common culture became reasonably solidified in 1820, when the first great wave of non-protestant immigrants began. The civic culture included strong beliefs in Protestantism, individual enterprise, and political democracy. Because no single religion dominated the colimits, religious tolerance slowly evolved.
How did native-born Americans react to immigrants arriving during the immediate post-revolution period? What were the roles of xenophobia and legislative action in this reaction?
A broad-based antiforeign attitude sporadic and localized until then asserted itself. Both the Jeffersonian and the Federalist political factions feared their opponents would benefit from the newcomers. Dominant English Americans beliefs about and actions toward the newly arriving northern and western European immigrants.followed what was to become a familiar pattern in dominant-minority relations. Suspiciodd of those who differed from themselves, the dominant culture felt threatend. Xenophobia-Many Federalist, in fact, believed that the large foreign-born population was the root of all evil in the United States. Wrapped in the dominant groups negative perceptions were concerns that those newcomers cultures, religions, political ideologies-indeed, tire very essence as people-were so unlike themselves as to make blending into the mainstream a virtual impossibility.