AMS/MCS/SOC 200-Study Guide – Ch. 11: Hispanic Americans

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AMS/MCS/SOC 200-Study Guide – Ch. 11: Hispanic Americans
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2012-05-06 01:07:00
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AMS/MCS/SOC 200-Study Guide – Ch. 11: Hispanic Americans
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  1. What was the United States' two largest Hispanic/Latino groups
    Mexicans and Puerto Ricans
  2. What is the Treaty of Paris? How did it effect Puerto Rico and Puerto Ricans?
    Ruled by Spain for over400 years, Puerto Ricans became U.S. nationals when three treaty of Paris in1898 ended three Spanish-American War and made their land U.S. territory. Until1948, when Puerto Rico became a commonwealth with full autonomy and its people could elect their own governor, the island was a colony with appointed governors and its legislative actions subject to annulment by the U.S. Congress, which reserved the right to legislate for the island if it wished. As just one example of the island's colonial status, U.S. officials decreed that all education was to be in English. That edict remained in effect until 1991, when Puerto Ricans voted to restore Spanish add the island's official language.
  3. What its the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo? How did it affect Mexican nationals living in three areas that were annexed?
    The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the Mexican-American War in 1848 brought Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, and California into the United States and U.S. citizenship to about 75,000 Mexican nationals still living there one year after the treaty. Viewed as a conquered and inferior people, they soon lost title to the land were they and their ancestors had lived because they could not prove ownership in the Anglo Court system. By 1892, official policy toward Mexican Americans was so biased against them that the federal government allowed anyone except them to get grazing privileges on public lands in the southwest. Nor did the violence against them end. In fact, the interethnic violence between Anglos and Mexican Americans thereafter was so extensive that some experts believe there were more killings of Mexican Americans than lynchings of black Americans between1850 and1930.
  4. What has been the change in the economic structure over the last 40 years, and how has this affected todays Hispanic/Latino immigrants?
    Low skilled immigrant groups-including Puerto Ricans and Mexicans-typically obtained jobs such as unskilled factory work that had low status, low pay, and little mobility but at least provided sufficient income to achieve some degree of economic security. Unlike past groups from less industrialized nations, however todays Hispanic immigrants enter a "POST INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY" where fewer unskilled factory jobs are available. instead they find work in other physical Labor field such as agriculture, construction and home improvement, food service, and landscaping. OVERPOPULATION throughout LATIN AMERICA is a significant factor in CONTINUED MIGRATION OF LARGE NUMBERS OF HISPANICS TO THREE UNITED STATES. High birth rates, improved sanitation, reduction of child mortality, and negative cultural and religious attitudes toward birth control have led population booms in countries whose resources and habitable land cannot support so many people. THE TOTAL POPULATION OF LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN GREW FROM OVER 285 MILLION IN 1970 TO OVER 566 MILLION IN 2006. CURRENT PROJECTIONS INDICATE THAT THE POPULATION WILL REACH ABOUT 700 MILLION BY 2025.
  5. What is racialization? What are some examples of how (some) Hispanic/ Latino groups have been racialized? (Note: this is not from book-this its from lecture)
  6. What does LA Raza refer to and what is the history of the concept?
    Cultural Concept associated with Hispanics-especially Mexicans is LA RAZA COSMICA, THE COSMIC RACE. The Mexican intellectual JOSE VASCONCELOS COINED THE TERM IN 1925. Refers to the AMALGAMATION OF THE WHITE, BLACK, AND INDIAN RACES THAT HE BELIEVED WAS OCCURRING IN LATIN AMERICA. In his old age, he dismissed the idea as a juvenile fantasy, but the concept evolved into a group categorization similar to what KURT LEWIN CALLS THE RECOGNITION OF AN "INTERDEPENDENCE OF FATE." LA RAZA COSMICA SUGGEST THAT ALL THE SPANISH-SPEAKING PEOPLES IN THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE SHARE A CULTURAL BOND AND THAT GOD HAS PLANNED FOR THEM A GREAT DESTINY THAT HAS YET TO BE REALIZED. From this MYTHIC construct, activist sought to unify compatriots around a common political goal based on the NATIONALISM OF ARM IMAGINED COMMUNITY. LA RAZA LIVED ON AS A STRONG POLITICAL ORGANIZATION REPRESENTING CHICANO INTERESTS.
  7. What are the high school completion rates for Hispanic/ Latinos compared to non-Hispanic Whites? What are the poverty rates for Hispanic/ Latinos overall and for Mexican and Puerto Rican Americans more specifically?
    41% For Latinos and 7% For non-Hispanic whites. One in six Hispanic families had income over $75,000 or more in 2006-one in five lived in poverty a higher percentage of Mexican and Puerto Rican Americans live in poverty than other Hispanic groups whereas Cuban and South Americans are the least likely of Hispanic subgroups to live in poverty. Latino/ Hispanic overall poverty Rates are 21.8%, Mexicans 23.8%, Puerto Ricans 25.3%, White-non Hispanic 8.3%.
  8. What is the occupational pattern in managerial and professional occupations, and in unskilled blue-collar occupations for most Hispanic Hispanic/ Latino males and females?
    Most Hispanic males (except Cuban and South Americans) are heavily underrepresented in managerial and professional occupations, and an unusually high number of Mexican and Centeral Americans work in unskilled blue-collar occupations. Hispanic woman tend to work in sales and administrative support positions as non-Hispanic females. Hispanic females are less likely than non-Hispanics, however, to occupy managerial and professional positions, although Cuban and Puerto Rican, and South American women are more strongly represented on these positions than Hispanic women.
  9. What is the history of laborers from Mexico during the 19th century? What its the bracero program? (Note: "Wetback")
    Mexicans from south of the border helped fill U.S. Labor needs for the construction of railroad lines and the expansion of cotton, fruit, and vegetable farms. Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 curtailed one source of Labor, and later the immigration Acts of 1921 and1924 curtailed another. Many Mexicans left their poverty-stricken country for the economic opportunities available in the United States. The Mexicans that crossed into Texas were known as "Wetbacks" because they crossed three Rio Grande. THE BRACERO PROGRAM WAS MEXICANS THAT ENTERED LEGALLY AS CONTACTED LABOR THEY ENTERED THE U.S. ON TEMPORARY VISAS THEN RETURNED TO MEXICO AFTER THE HARVEST. The program lasted from 1942-1964.
  10. Explain the U.S. expulsion of Mexican immigrants during the1930's. What is "Operation wetback"
    When many U.S. citizens were jobless Mexicans found themselves unwelcome during these downturns Stone Mexicans left voluntarily, and others left under pressure by local residents. Hundreds and thousands who did not leave willingly were rounded up and deported from Southern California, from cities throughout the southwest and as far North as from Chicago and Detroit. In the1950's the U.S. Immigration launched "Operation Wetback" to find and return all undocumented Mexican Aliens. Government officials found and expelled 3.8 million Mexicans.
  11. What was the Zoot Suit Riot of 1943? What triggered it?
    Two events triggered it Some Mexican boys returning home from a police sponsored club meeting, were assaulted by a group of Non-Mexican hoodlums from the neighborhood in Loss Angeles. The Same evening, 11 sailors on leave were attacked, and1 sailor was badly hurt. 200 sailors decided to settle the matter themselves the fallowing evening, they beat every Mexican they found.
  12. What are the stereo types of Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans with regards to their socioeconomic standing and stop supposed cultural values? What are the facts stated in the text that challenge these stereo types?
    Mexicans/Puerto Ricans-Lazy, Unclean, Treacherous, Sneaky, or Thieving once appeared frequently in the mass media. Currently, the two most common stereo types are being Undocumented aliens and belonging to youth gangs.They suffer from "Culture of Poverty" beliefs held by the dominant society. Facts that Challenge these stereotypes-They have a participation rate in the laboe force comparable to all other groups, the percentage of Mexican Americans recieving welfare assistance is only one-sixth that of blacks and of other Hispanic groups and about one-half that of whites .As their length of time in the U.S. increases Mexican Immigrants close the earning gap with U.S. -born Mexican Americans but not with non-Hispanic whites.
  13. What its the history of the term Chicano? Who are Cesar Chavez,Rodolfo Gonzales, Reies Lopes Tijerina, David Sanchez, and Janet Murguia? What does the Mexican-American Legal Defense and Education Fund (MALDEF) do?
    Until the 1960s, the term Chicano was a derogatory name applied in Mexico to the "lower" class Mexican Indian people rather than to the Mexican-Spanish. Cesar Chavez: United Farm Workers Union. Rodolfo Gonzales: La Raza Unida political third party movement. Reies LopezTijerina: Alianza group seeking to recover lost land or stolen over the years. David Sanchez: His militant Brown Berets, who modeled themselves after the Black Panthers. Janet Murguia: Executive director of the National Council of La Raza. MALDEF: Civil Rights Organization effectively uses its influence in the public arena to address such issues as bilingualism, school financing, segragation, employment practices, and immigration reform.
  14. Who were the original inhabitants of Puerto Rico? For how long (and beginning when?) did the Spanish dominate Puerto Rico? When did the U.S. annex Puerto Rico and how did it treat Puerto Ricans? When did inhabitants receive U.S. citizenship?
    Original Inhabitants of Puerto Rico: Arawak and Caribe Indigenous tribes, until 1493. Puerto Rico came under Spanish domination in 1493 and remained so for 400 years. The U.S. annexation of Puerto Rico was in 1948 (after the Spanish American War) was fallowed by an attempt at forced Americanization. The U.S. authorities discouraged anything associated with the Spanish Tradition and imposed the use of the English language. Presidents appointed governors, usually from the mainland, to rule the territory. The inhabitants recieved U.S. citizenship in 1917.
  15. When did Puerto Rico become a commonwealth and what did it mean for Puerto Rico? What was Operation bootstrap and how did this affect Puerto Rico? What happens in the 1980's that changed this?
    In the 1940s uerto Rico became a commomwealth. People could write their own Constitution and elect their own representatives. In addition, the Island gained complete freedom in its internal affairs, including the right to maintain Spanish heritage and obolition of all requirements to use English. To help the island develop economically, the U.S. government launched Operation Bootstrap in 1945. U.S. industries recieved substantial tax advantages if they made capital investments in Puerto Rico. Tax Breaks, Loe Cost Labor, encouraged businesses to build over 300 new factories and creating over 48,000 new jobs. By the 1980s expiring tax exemptions prompted numerous industries to leave the island for cheaper labor and tax advantages elsewhere.
  16. What was LA Migracion and what triggered it? When was the greatest period of Puerto Rican migration to the mainland? How and why did migration change after 1964? Of all Puerto Ricans living either on the island or on the mainland, approximately what proportion was living on the mainland in 2010?
    The collapse of the Puerto Rican sugar industry in the 1950s triggered the beginning of LA Migracion, one of the most dramatic voluntary exoduses in the world history. One of every six Puerto Ricans migrated to the mainland. The Greatest period of Puerto Rican migration was 1946-1964 when about 615,000 moved to the mainland. After 1964, a significant drop in Puerto Rican migration occured, aided in part by a revived Puerto Rican sugar industry after a U.S. Boycott of all Cuban trade.
  17. How do Puerto Ricans compare to other Hispanic/ Latino groups with regards to poverty?
    Puerto Ricans have a higher poverty rate than other Hispanic groups. However, theirs has been steadily declining in recent years while that of the Mexicans has been steadily increasing. About the same percentage of Puerto Rican families live in poverty as do African American families. In 2006, the annual income of 33 percent of Puerto Rican families exceeded $50,000, while the annual income of 17 percent exceeded $75,000.
  18. What contributed to the rise in immigration from Cuba starting around 1960? Who compromised thre second wave of Cuban immigrants during the late 1980's? Who are Marielitos?
    Since 1960 more than 910,000 Cubans entered the U.S. touched off by Castro's rise to power, Cuban immigration surged in the first year of the Cuban Revolution. The first waves of postrevolutionary refugees were "displaced bourgeoisie" - Well educated middle - and upper-class professionals and businesspeople alienated by the new regime.When the Mariel boatlift brought 125,000 newcomers to the U.S. in just a few months. Most were urban working-class and lower-class people, but Castro also included several thousand criminals among them-which trigered an unfavorable U.S. response. Non-Hispanic whites treated them disparagingly because they could not differentiate them from other poorer Spanish-speaking groups. "Marielitos" The second wave of Cuban newcomers to the U.S. mostly working-class and lower-class people.
  19. How did Cubans respond to the discrimination they faced in the early 1980's in Miami? How are Cuban Americans faring socioeconomically compared to other Hispanic/Latino groups in the US?
    Cubans responded to discrimination by forming thier own economic enclave and entering local politics. Unlike the classic assimilation model of integration and absorbtion within the dominant society, this movement toward economic and political empowerment enabled Cubans to assert themselves and then enter the societal mainstream. Cubans 10.7% Persons below the poverty rate, 26.5% of males and 33.4% of females are in managerial or professional occupations, a significantly higher proportion than for any other Hispanic group.
  20. What are several push factors the text identifies that triggered emigration from Latin America?
    Overpopulation, acute shortage of farmland, economic hardship, and political turmoil-triggered a significant increase in emigration.
  21. What is the most common push factor for Dominican immigrants? How do they compare in terms of unemployment and poverty and why?
    The Push Factor is the poverty of their land. Many lack specialized skills, they have a high unemployment rate and often live in poor urban neighborhoods, suffering the deprivation and family disruption so common among people with low levels of education and job skills. Racial discrimination further compounds their problems.
  22. What occurred in El Salvador militarily that led to many Salvadorans emigrating? How did the Reagan-era State Department respond? What is the sanctuary movement?
    Salvadoran government responded to protests and demonstrations with severe repression. Paramilitary death squads composed of members of the ruling elite , as well regular security and military forces, targeted peasant leaders, union militants, and political activists. Reagan-era State Department argued that, although El Salvador might be a war-torn country, none of those left could prove that they had been specifically singled out for persecution and thus did not have the necessary "well-founded fear of prosecution" to qualify for political amnesty. Sanctuary Movement in the U.S. Clergy defied the government, hiding Saladoran refugees in churches and homes. The clergy and members provided food, shelter and clothing and secretly helped the refugees get to safe locations.
  23. How have Nicaraguans entered the US? Define refugee and asylee. What is the role of the Sandinistas and Contras in this emigration? Know the composition of Columbians in the U.S.
    Nicaraguans have entered the U.S. as immigrants, refugees, asylees, and undocumented aliens. A refugee is an alien outside the United States who is unable or unwilling to return to his or her country because of persecution or a well-founded fear of persecution. An asylee is identical to a refugee, except for being physically in the U.S. or at a port of entry when requesting refuge. Sandinistas came to power in Nicaragua and the Contras under took guerrilla war against the new government. More than 46,000 Middle Class refugees entered the U.S. between 1980 and 1990. Simultaneously, another 79,000 Nicaraguans streamed into Texas, filing asylum applications. With no previous educational experience, most of the 13 to 15 year old were illiterate and had to be taught the basics of reading and arithmetic. 3,000 immigrants anually stream into the U.S. but more than 230,000 now claim Nicaraguan ancestry.

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