MCS-200 CH. 4.txt
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- Define ethnic group identity?
- Ethnic group identity exist when individuals choose to emphasize cultural or national ties as the basis for their primary social interactions and sense of self. Leaving the taken-for-granted world of their homeland, immigrants-as strangers in a strange land-become more self-conscience of their group identity.
Identify and explain the factors that promote ethnic group identity?
A cohesive ethnic community, continually revitalized by the steady influx of newcomers, will maintain a strong resilience. Ethnic-minority media can play a significant role in strengthening that sense of identity. Indeed, minority media can affect the assimilation process, either by promoting it or by delaying the process by stressing the retention of language, customs and values.
Define Racial Group Identity?
Physical identification through skin color, facial features, and/or hair texture thus maintains different differences between the mainstream racial group and others. With their race as an inescapable feature affecting their social acceptance and interaction patterns, non-Europeans typically develop a racial-group identity. This ingroup bonding satisfies the human need for a sense of belonging while simultaneously serving as a basis for racial and cultural pride. People of color - typically affirm their identity and heritage in a variety of ways. These include combating their stereotypes, teaching the younger generation about their racial history and achievements, adopting slogans (Black Is Beautiful) or special names (African Americans, Mexican Americans, Korean Americans, Native Americans) as a positive designator of their dual reality.
Which racial groups tend tend to develop a racial-group identity?
Non-European typically-People of color
According to the text, what are the three ways minority groups respond to prejudice and discrimination and discrimination?
Avoidance, deviance, defiance
By migrating-leaving them behind. They turn inward to their own group for all or most of their social and economic activities. It promotes clannishness and non-assimilation. By clustering together in small subcommunities, minority peoples not only create a miniature version of their familiar world in the strange land but also establish a safe place in which they can live, relax and interact with others like themselves, who understand their needs and interests.
When a group continually experiences rejection and discrimination, some of its members can't identify with the dominant society or accept its norms. The situation occurs in particular when laws serve to impose the moral standards of the dominant group on the behavior of other groups. Deviant behavior among minority groups occurs not because of race or ethnicity as prejudice people think, bit usually because of poverty and lack of oppurtunity. Clifford Shaw and Henry McKay, in a classic study of juvenile delinquency in Chicago, suggested that structural conditions, not membership in a particular minority group, determine crime and delinquency rates. They found that the highest rates of juvenile delinquency occurred in areas with poor housing, few job opportunities, and wide spread prostitution, gambling, and drug use.
Explain defiance. What is the reason for defiance (in other words, why do members become defiant)? Provide examples of defiant actions?
If a minority group is sufficiently cohesive and conscious of its growing economic or political power, its members may act openly to challenge, and eliminate discriminatory practices. In defying discrimination, the minority group takes a strong stance regarding its position in the society. Sometimes defiance is violent and seems spontaneous, although it usually grows out of long-standing conditions. Any peaceful action that challenges the status quo, though less aggressive, is defiant (parades, marches, picket lines, mass meetings, boycotts, and demonstrations)
Explain the vicious-circle phenomenon (aka comularive causation).
Sometimes the relationship between prejudice and discrimination is circular, Gunnar Myrdal refers to this pattern as - CUMULATIVE CAUSATION - a VICIOUS-CIRCLE PHENOMENON in which prejudice and discrimination perpetuate each other. The dynamics of the relations between dominant and minority groups set in motion a cyclical sequence of reciprocal stimuli and responses. For example, a discriminatory action in filling jobs leads to a minority reaction, poverty, which in turn reinforces the dominant-group attitude that the minority group is inferior, leading to more discrimination, and so on. In other words, negative expectations engender negative reactions, broadening the social distance between the groups, and causing the vicious circle to continue. Allport says "If we foresee evil in our fellow man, we tend to provoke it; if good, we elicit it."
Examples in the text regarding Jews and Irish during the 19th century.
When Jews were denied access to many U.S. vacation resorts during the 19th century, their reactions served to reinforce their negative stereotype in the minds of some, reinforcing their discriminatory behavior. Some Jews demanded equal access, which the resort operators took as proof that Jews were "pushy" When the Jews responded to this discriminatory policy by establishing and patronizing their own resorts in the Catskill Mountains, the majority group labled them as "clanish." The Irish encountered severe job discrimination, the resulting poverty forced many of them to live in urban slums, where they often had trouble with the law. Given this evidence of their "inferiority" and "undesirability," majority-group employers curtailed their job opportunities further.
How does the text define marginality?
Minority groups sometimes find themselves caught in a conflict between their own identity and values and the necessity to behave in a certain way to gain acceptance by the dominant group. It usually arises when a member of a minority group is passing through a transitional period. In attempting to enter the mainstreamof society, the marginal person internalizes the dominant group's cultural patterns without having gained full acceptance. Such individuals occupy an ill-defined position, no longer at ease within their own group but not yet fully a part of the reference group, the one by whose standards they evaluate themselves and their behavior. Robert E. Park, who gave this social phenomenon its name. Marginality is an example of cultural conflict caused primarily by the clash of values within the individual.
Explain how the dominant group may enact legislative controls as a response to minority groups. Provide examples from the U.S.
If the influx of racial and ethnic groups appears to the dominant group to be too great for a country to absorb, or if prejudicial fears prevail, the nation may enact measures to regulate and restrict their entry. To maintain a paternalistic social system, the dominant group frequently restricts the subordinate group's educational and voting opportunities. This denial assures the dominant group of maintaining its system of control. Poll Taxes restricted voting and denying political power. Immigration laws that either excluded or curtailed the number of immigrants from other countries, limited educational oppurtunities, and restricted political oppurtunities.
Define spatial segregation.
Is the physical alteration of a minority people from the rest of society.
Provide examples of spatial segregation.
Most commonly occurs in residential pattern, but also takes place in education, in the use of public facilities, and in occupations.
Define De jure segregation and de facto.
de jure - The majority group may institutionalize this form of segregation by law. de facto - The majority group may establish it informally through pervasive practice.
Define social segregation.
Involves confining participation in social, service, political, and other types of activities to members of the ingroup.
What types of activities are considered social segregation.
The dominant group excludes the outgroup from any involvement in meaningful primary-group activities and in secondary-group activities.
When other methods of dealing with a minority group fail and sometInes not even as a last resort an intolerant dominant group may persecute the minority group or eject it from the territory where it resides. Is an effort to drive out a group that is seen as a social problem rather than attempting to resolve the problem cooperatively. This policy often arises after other methods such as assimilation or extermination, have failed.
Explain how and why the dominant group may engage in expulsion as a response to minority groups. provide examples from the US.
In colonial times the Puritans forced Roger Williams and his followers out of Massachusetts for Thor nonconformity; the group settled in what became Rhode Island. The forced removal of Cherokee Indians from rich Georgia land and the subsequent "trail of tears" during which 4000 perished along the 1000 mile forced March to Oklahoma Territory.
If the dominant groups suspicions and fears of the minority group become serious enough, they may produce volatile, irrational feelings and actions. Overreactions. The undue fear of or contempt for strangers or foreigners.
Explain how and why the dominant group may become xenophobic as a response to minority groups. Provide examples.
the federalist fearful of "wild Irishman" and "French radicals" and anxious to eliminate what they saw as a foreign threat to the countries stability, passed the Alien and Sedition Acts. When a bomb exploded at an anarchist gathering at Chicagos Haymarket Square in 1886, many Americans therafter linked foreigners with radicals. The Bolshevic Revolution in 1717 led to the Palmer raids, in which foreign born US residents were illegally rounded up and incarcerated for their alleged Communist Party affiliation; some were even deported. the US English movements current effort to pass English only laws reflect a xenophobic fear that foreiners wont learn english.
Define annihilation? Provide examples.
The Nazi extermination of more than 6 million Jews brought the term genocide into the English language, but the practice of annihilation killing all the men, woman, and children of a particular group goes back to ancient times. In warfare among the ancient Assyrians, Babylonians, Egyptians, Hebrews, and other, the usual practice was for the Victor to slay every magnet of an enemy civilization, partly to prevent their children from seeking reveng. In modern times various countries have used extermination as a means of solving a so-called race problem.The British, through extermination and close confinement of survivors, annihilated the entire aboriginal population of Tasmania between 1803-1876. The Dutch considered South African San (Bushmen) less than human and attempted to obliterate them. When native people of Brazil resisted Portuguese settlement of their lands, the whites solved the problem by systematically killing them. Annihilation sometimes occurs unintentionally, as when whites inadvertently spread Old Worms sickness to Native Americans in the United States and Canada, to Inuit (Escimos), and to Polynesians.
According to the text, what are the reasons for the increase of hate groups in the 2000's in the US? What are the hate groups in the U.S. according to the intelligence Project of the Southern Poverty Laws Center?
it is driven in large measure by the immigration issue. Neo-nazi organization, Ku Klux Klan, neo-Confederates, and black separatist groups, Nation of Islam, skinheads, and Christian Identity Groups.
Define Hate Groups? What kind of bias has contributed to the greatest number of U.S. hate Crimes?
Defined as any criminal offense against a person or property that is motivated in whole or part by the offenders bias against race, reliogion, ethnic/nationality orgin, group, or sexual orientation. Racial bias motivated 52 percent of the incidents.
Explain Edna Bonacich's split Labor market theory of exploitation. Is it functionalist, conflict, or symbolic interactionalist theory?
A means of understanding the ethnic antagonism arising from economic exploitaion. Conflict Theory.
Define the split/dual Labor market and what it comprises. How are primary and secondary Labor markets different? What is the result for racial/ethnic relations?
That much ethnic antagonism is based not on ethnicity and race but on the conflict between higher-paid and lower-paid labor. If the higher-paid Labor group is strong enough, it may be able to block the cheaper competition through exclusion. It may create a caste system, higher-paid Labor exclusively controls certain high-paying jobs and limits the minority group to other lower-paying jobs. Radicalism in which the workers form a multi-ethnic coalition against the employers. Here the action may include mass demonstrations and protests, sometimes provoked into violent outbreaks by counterdemonstrations, employer race-baiting, or police activity. Racial/Ethnic relations-Racial and ethnic stereotyping becomes a key factor in the Labor conflict, and prejudice, ethnic antagonism, and racism becomes overt. It fuels anti-immigration sentiments, intensified even more these days by the millions of undocumented immigrants in the country.
What are the causes of conflict between minority groups?
Jockeying for power, competing for jobs, seeing the other as gaining an "unfair" advantage, or becoming resentful of the others presence in their neighborhood.
What are the theories that address how ethnic immigrant groups fit into U.S. society?
Assimilation or majority-conformity theory, amalgamation or melting pot theory, or pluralistic theory.
Explain the assimilation (majority-conformity) theory. Is it a functionalist, conflict, or symbolic interactionist theory? The theory encourages assimilation into which culture exactly and why?
Refers to the functioning within a society of racial or ethnic minority-group members who lack any marked cultural, social, or personal differences from the people of the majority group. Physical or racial differences may persist, but they do not serve as the basis for group prejudice or discrimination. In effect, members of the minority group no longer appear to be strangers because they have abandoned their own cultural traditions and successfully imitated the dominant group. Functionalist Theory. The dominant culture because they believe that the societal elements that function together maintain order, stability, and equilibrium.
Identify and define the types of assimilation suggested by Gordon and the order of assimilation according to Gordon?
Cultural Assimilation (Acculturation)-The change of cultural patterns to match those of the host society. Marital Assimilation-Large scale intermarriage with members of the majority society. Structural Assimilation-Large scale entrance into the cliques, clubs, and institutions of the host society on a primary group level - best reveal the extent of acceptance of minority groups in the larger society.
Define secondary structural assimilation and primary structural assimilation?
Secondary-typically involves the more impersonal public sphere of social interaction. Examples are a nondiscriminatory sharing by dominant-and minority-group members of settings such as those in civic, recreational, school, or work environments. Primary-Typically involves close, personal interactions between dominant and minority-group members in settings such as those in churches, families, social clubs, and organizations, or small social gatherings.
Explain the Amalgamation (melting pot theory)? What are the critisism of it? Did we melt?
States that all the diverse peoples blend their biological and cultural differences into an altogether new breed-the American. That Western heritage / U.S. Citizens really want is other cultures to blend in-assimilate. No we have not the absorption of various cultural components or peoples produces assimilation and not amalgamation. The melting pot meant Anglo-conformity.
Explain the accomodation (pluralistic) theory?
It recognizes the persistence of racial and ethnic diversity, as in Canada, where the government has adopted multiculturalism as official policy. That minorities can maintain their distinctive subcultures and simultaneously interact with relative equality in the larger society.
Define cultural pluralism and structural pluralism?
Cultural-Two or more culturally distinct groups living in the same society in relative harmony-has been the more noticeable form of pluralism. Structural-The coexistence of racial and ethnic groups in subsocieties within social-class and regional boundries-is less noticeable.
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