AMS/MCS/SOC 200-Study Guide – Ch. 9: Middle Easter and North African Americans

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  1. What was the 1965 Immigration Act? How did it influence immigration to the US from the Middle East and North Africa?
    The 1965 Immigration act changed the immigration laws by eliminating the restrictive national-orgins quota system thus opening the door to many different peoples who previously were denied entry. Since 1965 change in the immigration laws, a third major wave of immigration has occured, again creating dramatic changes in the composition of the nations population.
  2. What are "sojourners"? What are some reasons for why they only stay in the U.S. temporarily?
    Sojourners: Non-Westerners in the U.S. consisting of nonimmigrant students, workers, and business people. Although they usually remain for only two to five years. They may return home from the U.S. after acquiring an advanced education or experience that will permit a better life back home.
  3. What is "racialization"? Be able to explain how the concept applies to Arab Americans and the Arab world (this question will also be answered by the guest speaker, Lila Sharif). (In other words, how are they stereotyped as "different" and what are the consequences in terms of how they are treated here and abroad?)
    Process Whereby society perceives group of people as raciallt distinct & accords them unequal treatment. Arab Americans: They are all Muslims, they are all terrorist, they hate the west. Males: Beard, Turban, wealthy, greedy, dishonest, violent. Female: veiled, silent oppressed, or scantily clad, sensuos, needing to be "rescued" by the West.
  4. What ethnic group consists of the largest Arab American population?
  5. When did most Lebanese and Syrians immigrate to the U.S.? What were the push factors and pull factors? Why were they able to achieve relative economic security quickly?
    • Most In 1870s-1914 (Peak1913-1914)
    • Push Factors: Harsh living conditions, oppressive Turkish Rule.
    • Pull Factor:Reports by Missionaries, etc. about the U.S.
    • Occupational skills allowed relative economic security.
    • Emigration to the U.S. began in the 1870s reching an estimated 100,000 between 1890 and 1914. The push factor: A combination of harsh living conditions - hunger, poverty, and disease - and Turkish oppression, particularly of Christians. The pull: United States was the result of reports by missionaries and steamship agents of economic oppurtunities and religious and politcal freedom. They were able to achieve relative economic security quickly: They had wide dispersal, negating any significant oppsition to their presence; business expertise and self-employment, which alowed them greater rewards; and cultural values of thrift, industriousness, and investment that were comparable to the middle-class values of the host society.
  6. What was the 1967 Arab-Israeli War (aka Six Day War)? How did it influence Arab immigration to the U.S.?
    • -Israel launches attack on Egypt, Syria, Iraq, Jordon
    • -Occupies Gaza Strip, West Bank, parts of Syria, and parts of Egypt
    • -Push Factors: autocratic rule, religious oppression, 1967 Arab-Israeli War.
    • Was fought between June 5 and 10, 1967, by Israel and the neighboring states of Egypt (known at the time as the United Arab Republic), Jordan, and Syria. After a period of high tension between Israel and its neighbors, the war began on June 5 with Israel launching surprise air strikes against Arab forces. The outcome was a swift and decisive Israeli victory. Israel took effective control of the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula from Egypt, the West Bank and East Jerusalem from Jordan, and the Golan Heights from Syria.the Egyptian economy has endured three decades of economic stagnation that has prompted a significant number of Egyptians to emigrate to more prosperous countries, such as the United States
  7. According to the text, what is the fastest-growing Arab American population?
  8. When did most Egyptians begin arriving to the U.S.? What were the push factors that influenced Egyptian immigration? What social class of people mostly comprised the first group of Egyptian immigrants and why? What religion are the majority of Egyptian Americans?
    • -Emigrate: 1970s
    • -Push Factors: autocratic rule, religious oppression, 1967 Arab-Israeli War.
    • -First Group Egyptian Immigrants: Educated, professional, skilled.
    • Religion: 42% are Catholic

  9. What are the two ethnic groups that make up Iraqi Americans? How are they different from each other in terms of language and religion? When did each group tend to arrive in the U.S.?
    Two Ethnic Groups: Iraqi Arabs and Iraqi Chaldeans

    How They Differ From Each Other: Chaldeans are post-World War II immigrants and Iraqi Arabs are their predecessors.

  10. When did the largest number of Palestinians immigrate to the U.S? What religion are the majority of Palestinian Americans? What other religions are many Palestinian Americans? What are the push factors for Palestinian immigration ("home influence")?
    • -In 1967 after the Six Day War.
    • -Christians of the Eastern Orthodox
    • -Push Factor: Some Palestinian immigrants came to the United States for political reasons, but the majority arrived for economic and educational opportunity.
  11. What language is mostly spoken in Iran? Why did many Iranian students who studied in the U.S. in the late 1970s resist returning to Iran until after 1979? What groups of people tended to be sojourners to the U.S. into the late 1970s? What was the SAVAK and how did it influence Iranians’ interactions in the U.S.? What was the event that led to anti-Iranian feelings running high in the U.S. during the 1980s?
    • -Language: Farsi
    • -Fear of political repression under the shah kept many from returning to their homeland.
    • -Skilled Professionals.
    • -SAVAK: The Shah's secret police force. Some Iranians kept to themseves for fear that the SAVAK would report something about them, bringing harm to relatives still in Iran.
    • -The Hostage crisis at the U.S. Embassy in Iran remained unsolved.

  12. What were the push factors and pull factors contributing to Israeli immigration?
    • -Push Factors: Unrest in Region, hieghtend by 1973 Yom Kippur War, fierce competition in job market, taxes, lack of available housing, discrimination against Sephardic Jews.
    • -Pull Factors: "Americanization" of Israel.
  13. Why were many different ethnic groups categorized as "Turkish" upon arrival to the U.S. between 1820 and 1918 (the end of WWI)? When has most immigration of ethnic Turks occurred? According to your text, what factors explain earlier low levels of emigration from Turkey? What were feelings toward the Turks before WWI, and why?
    Various subjugated peoples of different languages and cultures left the Ottoman Empire with only Turkish passports prior to World War I. Although Immigration officials identified them as Turkish by their passports, many actually
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AMS/MCS/SOC 200-Study Guide – Ch. 9: Middle Easter and North African Americans
AMS/MCS/SOC 200-Study Guide – Ch. 9: Middle Easter and North African Americans
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