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  1. What is philosophy?
    to understand the history of language, understand the development of language and term; good and bad, become good and evil.
  2. Who determines what is good or bad. How does the terms shift? for N
    Nobility determines what is good or bad. With the development of resentiment; shift to good and evil. New sets of meaning and relations of good and bad. human existence takes place in history; our understandings are shaped and conditioned by history
  3. What are the three waves of thoughts?
    • first wave: Machiavelli (ignored the questions of what is the best regime and how ought I to live my life)
    • second wave: Rousseau (criticize what has gone before him, trying to overcome mercenary ethics, introduce social contract that which makes us moral, criticize the liberalism (right over good) that has gone before him)
    • Third wave: Nietzche (critic of democratic liberalism; everything that begins with Hobbes)
  4. What is liberal democracy for N?
    denies our capacity to achieve greatness, their capcity for excllence in order to be part of the herd. In liberal democracy, most important is freedom, those who know that they are less then construct moral order at the expense of the stronger.
  5. What is Nietzche's criticism of the last man?
    last man has nothing worth dying for, nothing worth living for; all we are interested in is our pitiful comfort. He is criticizing this idea of equality over freedom; equality is American's greatest temptations, equality denies possibility of real excellence; we will not let others to be better than ourselves)
  6. What is Nietzche's claim about understanding of truths?
    we are conditioned by history, absurd to think about reason and knowing, absurd to think we can know everything; knowing is a perspective of the truth, not the whole truth. Truth continues to unfold in history. Our understanding is always perspectives, our knowing is perspectives of the truth
  7. Why is this called a genealogy?
    how morality came about tracing the history of morality; how morals came about. to do that one needs to understand language. Good, bad and evil did not always mean the same things. the values of these morals is examined. Nietzche is calling into question the validity of these moral values.
  8. what is master morality?
    nobles and warriors who see their actions as being good, distance themselves from the poor, name these as desirable qualities/characteristics
  9. what is slave morality?
    experience of resentment towards master's power; came out of the hatred for the strong and powerful
  10. What is Nietzche criticizing?
    not criticizing the system but the types of people these systems create
  11. How does Nietzche's position differ from the Ancients? what is he trying to do in his Genealogy of Morality?
    Trying to make you think about your life as living for a purpose, that purpose should be significantly higher (though he is anti-teleological) tyring to recover the ancient position, do it in a different way b/c of history. God is dead and we're in history; how do we talk about living in something higher when this is where we live. Ethics is a way to rearticulate; aristoi: nobility and aristocracy go hand in hand; the purpose, orientation and excelence is the way you live by your by something higher
  12. What is the ascetic life for Nietzche?
    self-denial, self-discipline: renoucement of worldly values and experiences, N is not competely against the ascentic ideals, but to be noble, you have to retain your passions and engage in self-denial. Deny your lower passions so that you can live by your higher passions. Part of that is willing to suffer over and over again for your passions and love. There is no God, so you have to create it yourself, destroy your values and recreate them day in and day out, living a form of ascetism (life of nobiilty)
  13. Where does the morality of the west come out of?
    Christianity and Judaism. The tradition articulates slave-morality, which takes the weak position and says that this is the ideal. Couterposes it to noble ideals. making those the standard at the expense of the stronger; constantly struggling for more power
  14. who are the three masters of suspicion? why are they called that?
    • They create cover stories to cover up what is really going on to make ourselves feel better so that we don't have to face the dark side of human nature. Marx creates the economic story of capitalism to oppress the poor, to deny the fruits of her labor
    • Freud creates civilizations to protect us from our deep sex and death drives so we don't have to face these things
    • Nietzche: will to power that moves us; we create these stories to cover the fact that will to power moves us; Christian morality is weak over strong for power over them. we want to have control over tohers, want power over them, to let them be indebted to you
  15. what drives psychologists and why is that important? N
    pushing of the inner world to the background, seeking that which is actually effective where the intellectual pride of men would least of all wish to find it. Belittle mankind, pushing shameful to the foreground and using those to keep us in line
  16. Where does the concept of good come from? N
    the real genesis of the concept good does not stem form those to whom goodness is rendered. it was good themselves, what was noble, rich, superior, and powerful who ranked themselves as good; first rank in constrast to the low-minded, common and vulgar
  17. what is the pathos of distance?
    the feeling of superiority over the poor. Distance is created by the inability of the herd to experience suffering with what it means to be noble. out of this pathos of distance, the poor allowed themselves to create new values
  18. What is the pathos of nobility?
    dominant feeling, higher ruler in nature. Pathos: suffering with
  19. what is mob mentality? for N
    instinctive b/c they do it without thinking, without planning, herd instinct
  20. what does novility run parallel to?
    good, high-minded, excellent and they define it for themselves
  21. what is the priestly caste for N?
    develops hatred for the noble. Priestly has the power to reverse the morals to justify weakness. The role they play in this genealogy is the origin of slave morality and concept of evil. Priestly class traces to the Jews. Everything becomes more interesting with them b/c they create hatred and slave revolt when they reverse the morals
  22. What are knightly aristocrat values? N
    judgments made about things that are good like strength, courage, chivalry, health, cheer-hearted activity (demand for bravery, talking about the manly virtues, sense of aristocractic virtues, honesty) nobles who live their lives in a high minded way; life of exceelence of achieveing greatness. This is used to contrast the powerless states of the priests
  23. where does hate come from? N
    jealousy that someone is better than you
  24. what is politics of revenge? N
    Israel has to nail to the cross Jesus, sacrificing him to make sure his philosophies are like virtues and takes over the ethics of the world. Jesus is the bait and makes us want to seek revenge against the powerful and put the weak on the pedestal
  25. What is the prudence of the herd? N
    go along to get along, obey the general equality
  26. prudence of the nobles?N
    prudence is wisdom to achieve excellence; knowing how to become excellent by looking to yourself.
  27. What is source of Europe's doom? N
    resentment for those that are better
  28. what did the jews triumph over? N
    more noble ideals
  29. What does Nietzche reverse and what is his method of figuring out the meaning of life?
    Nietzche reversed the beatitudes and reinstituted nobility and aristocratic mindset under the supposision that God has passed away. Nothing to draw on to figure out the meaing of life. Meaning of life is then seomthing we have to figure out and make everyday, makes values for ourselves, then shatter it and then reconstruct it
  30. What is the life of excellence for N?
    the ordering of passions (willing to suffer for your vision for all eternity; you are willing to make choices over and over again. life is eternally an ongoing need to make choices)
  31. why are the well-borns simply happy for N?
    they did not construct their hapiness by looking at their enemies, did not separate activity and happiness. being active is of necessity included in happiness
  32. Relationship between the nobles and his enemies N
    when his enemies appear, he does not run his course and exhausts himself. Enemy doesn't poison him, he is unable for any length of time take his enemies too seriously, his nature is full of formative reconstuctive and healing power
  33. How does the terms good bad and evil manifest? N
    noble starts out with himself and creates the idea of good from himself and then creates bad. Evil is the true dee in conception of slave morality
  34. What is the effect of liberal democracy, settling for equality in society?N
    we are tired of men, we have become exhausted, too tired to try, to live by a vision, it leads to a kind of debilitating Nihilism, settling for mediocrity. Denies our capcity for excellence.
  35. How is Civilization and its discontents rousseaulian? Hobbesian?
    Freud thinks that civilization suppresses everything that is natural in us; civilization mutilates our nature. Primitive beings were better off not knowing the restrictions of instincts. hobbesian b/c we enter into civilzation to protect ourselves, dark side to human nature (we need to be protected from each other)
  36. What is our nature and what is the purpose of civilization according to Freud?
    root of our nature is an aggressive instinct, civilzation suppresses that. Hobbesian in that there is a dark side to human nature that needs to be controlled (controlled by civilation)
  37. What is the reality principle for Freud?
    postponing the fulfillment of our desires for a greater desire later b/c some desires we will never satisfy b/c of social contraints. Not everything we want to do, we can. we need to face the realyt that we cannot satisfy all our desires
  38. what is the source of our neurosis? F
    we can't fulfill all our sexual desires; this makes us neurtoic; society puts contraints on our sexual desires and this makes us neurotic; our behavior is not as free as we want it to be.
  39. what is the super-ego? and how is it related to the reality principle? F
    internal mechanism shaped by external forces, like your parents telling you no no no and how you ought to behave. Reality principle comes out of the super-ego. Ego is trying to reconcile this with the id which says yes yes yes all the time. Ego is trying to navigate between the two
  40. what is the pleasure principle? F
    wants to satisfy all our desires; there is this constant tug of war between the id and the superego. Healthy ego meets the demands of both. Ego tries to mediate between the demands of both
  41. what are the terms for sex and death drive? Who wins out
    Eros (sex drive), thanatos (death drive), Death drive wins out b/c we are constantly engaged in self-destructive behavior
  42. what is Freud's view on religion?
    comes out of an oceanic feeling, keeps us as infants. religion is trying to keep us from the fact that the world sucks and that we die. F believes that we ought to face the harsh truth of human existence, that our lives will entail suffering. Religion is a way to deal with threats of ego (guilt)
  43. How does religion deal with guilt according to Freud?
    Guilt is an ongoing presence in our lives; healthy ego learns how to appropriate guilt in a healthy way; religion is helping to keep us from dealing with threats of guilt
  44. what are the three types of suffering accoring to Freud?
    Body, external body (natural disasters) and relationship with others. Freud doesn't say however how human relationships can help you; he only comes down on one side of the issue. in order to have a modicum of human experience, one needs love even though you know that person will be a source of suffering, but they will birng you joy and love
  45. what is happiness for Freud, can it be satisfied?
    happiness is to realize your pleasures like Hobbes and locke, satisfaction of our pleasures; reality principle tells us that we can never be happy, can't satisfy all our urges and desires
  46. What is ego and its significance? F
    rational acitivty, sense of onself. no ego, no identity
  47. what is the relationship between eros and civilzation? F
    Eros is what brings civilzation about. Civilization comes about to keep one's sex drives close by. Eros is foundation for civilization meaning that civilization is constituted in order to structure and restrict our sexual desires
  48. What is the purpose of civilization for Hobbes and Freud?
    Hobbes: Leviathan is to protect ourselves from each ohter. Civilization is formed for Freud to tame our sexual desires, to order them. society is to control one's nature, not to make one better
  49. What does Freud claimi about civilization?
    we are covered up by the way in which we talk about civilization. we are really aggressive, but we don't want to admit that we are aggressive, so we create cover stories about civilzation and what it is meant to do.
  50. What does civilized men exchange when they enter into civilization?
    Civilized men exchange part of their happiness for protection, to be secure from one another
  51. How does Christianity take away our guilt?
    through Christ's death, Christian traditions takes away the guilt. Something endemic about religion inthat it takes away the experience of guilt
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