(1) The Navigation Acts were part of the policy of
(1) What led to England’s control of the colonial economy?
(1) What was the policy of trying to regulate colonial shipping and tobacco production.
(1) Whatsought to increase England’s Prosperity.
(1) Colonial cities served as
(1) Who settled in America to extend their commerce and trade?
(1) Why did colonists primarily settle in Virginia?
to profit economically
(1) The wealthiest people were ________ and ________?
merchants and planters
(1) What did most early (17th Century) English migrants came to the Chesapeake region as?
(1) What did the use of the indentured system allow?
poor people to seek a new life in America
(1) Where and why did most settlers move?
west of the Appalachian and because of the availability of cheap land
(1) The Appalachians were settled after what and by who?
the defeat of the Indians by the Scotch-Irish, German and English settlers.
(1) The colonies took advantage of salutary/benign neglect to
establish trade with other countries
Jamestown was founded by a
joint stock company seeking profit.
Colonial Pennsylvania was characterized by
the lack of an established church.
(1) What colonies had slavery at some point in their history?
(1) What replaced indentured servitude by the late 17th century in the Chesapeake?
(1) What spread rapidly in the last quarter of the 17th century?
(1) Where did Slaves who participated in the Stono Rebellion seek to escape to?
(1) What did the Stono Rebellion and New York conspiracy trials involve?
opposition to slavery
(1) What were slaves able to retain?
their African cultural practices
Puritans who settled in New Englanddid or did notseparate from the Church of England.
(1) Puritans migrated to the colonies because of ->3
political repression, recession, and limits on the religious practices.
(1) What were Puritans intolerant of?
(2) Who was forced out of Massachusetts Bay and Why?
Anne Hutchinson; because she challenged the religious beliefs of religious leaders.
(2) What was the Great Awakening?
A religious revival in colonial America.
(2) What did the Great Awakening lead to?
the creation of new churches and divisions within existiong ones
(1) Who were least likely to accept the Great Awakening?
(3) What did deists believe in?
that natural laws operated the universe
(1) Why were Harvard and Yale established?
to assure an adequate supply of Congregational/Puritan ministers
(1) What were Quakers known for? -> 4
accepting a greater role for women, opposition to slavery, freedom of religion, and the refusal to bear arms
(1) What did the colonies by 1750 have? ->4
many religions, a heredirary aristocracy, many non-British settlers, and slavery
(1) What was colonial New England society based on?
villages, towns, and farming
(1) What did Bacon's Rebellion demonstrate the division between?
backcountry farmers and tidewater plantation owners
(1) By the end of the colonial period what states were royal colonies?
both Virginia and Massachusetts
(1) What did woment loose control over upon marriage?
(2) What is "Republican Motherhood"?
the belief that the role of women was to raise their children to be virtuous
(1) What made if difficult for Indians to unite against colonial expansion?
Language differences between tribes
(1) What is the Iroquois Confederacy?
The most effective Indian organization to face the colonies
(2) The French and Indian War caused the British to do what?
impose direct/revenue taxes on the colonies
(1) What did Proclamation of 1763 attempt to do?
prevent settler-Indian conflict over land
(1) What did The Proclamation of 1763 prevent?
colonist from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains
(1) What was the primary purpose of the Stamp Act?
to raise money to support the British troops stationed in America
(1) Why was the Stamp Act objected?
it was a tax without the consent of the colonies
(1) Why was the Stamp Act Crisis important?
because violence was used, it occurred when British troops were being permanently stationed in America, the claim was made that parliamentary taxation denied the colonists their rights as British subjects, and Parliament declared that it had supreme legislative authority over the colonies
(1) Why was the Stamp Act passed by Parliament?
to provide money to pay for British troops stationed in America
(1) What affected changes in British policy toward the colonies after 1763?-> 4
land speculators, newspaper editors, lawyers, settlers, and merchants
(1) What did the argument of "virtual representation" center on?
whether or not the colonies' interest were represent in parliament
(1) What were examples of violence by westerners directed at representatives of distant eastern power?
Bacon's Rebellion, the Boston Tea Party, Shay's Rebellion, and the Whiskey Rebellion
(1) What did Thomas Paine's Common Sense attack?
the conceprt of monarchy as a form of government
(1) What did The Declaration of Independence do? (based on, appealed to, criticized)
based on natural law, appealed to the British people, criticized the Quebec Act and called George III a tyrant
(1) By the time of the revolution Americans had come to believe that __________ was in the people
(1) Who wished that the members of the Continental Congress would “remember the ladies” when they created an independent American government?
The French decided to aid the Americans after which battle?
Most soldiers in the Revolutionary War were or were not draftees
(2) Why did France support America?
to weaken Great Britain
(1) What did the Treaty of Paris (1783) recognize?
American control of the territory east of the Mississippi River from the Great Lakes to Florida
(1) What did the Continental Congress not want to give the new national government?
the same powers it had just denied to Parliament
(4) What did The Land Ordinance and the Northwest Ordinance American create and how successful was it?
an orderly process to create new states and was the greatest success of the national government under the Articles of Confederation
(2) What was a major problem with the Articles of Confederation?
the national government lacked the power to tax
(1) Why did the British justify its refusal to remove its troops from the Northwest Territory?
because the U.S. had not returned confiscated property to Tories (Treaty of Paris, 1783)
(2) What did Shays's Rebellion domonstrate?
the frustration of New England farmers with increased taxes and debts that had to be paid in hard currency
(1) What was a result of a series of compromises?
the final draft of the Constituion
(1) What did Americans believe in that was responsible to the people?
(1) What did the Founding Fathers believe with property?
that the widespread ownership of property promoted democracy
(1) What kind of governmentdid the Constitutional Convention create?
a government acceptable to slave and free states, as well as small and large sates; a strong national government; and Separation of Powers.
(1) What were the Founding Fathers opposed to?
the development of political parties
(1) What were farmers in isolated area most likey to oppose?
ratification of the Constituion (Anti-Federalist)
(1) What did the original Constitution create?
an electoral college
(1) Why was The Bill of Rights drafted?
to protect rights not mentioned in the Constituion
(1) What did the Federalist Papers believe?
that a republic over a large area would best protect individual rights
(1) What did the the three-fifths compromise deal with?
the counting of slaves for the number of seats in a state's delegation to the House of Representative.
(1) What was the Electoral College designed for?
to insulate the presidency from
(2) Who did Hamilton's economic policy favor?
(1) Why did Jefferson oppose Hamilton's Economic Policy?
it favored wealthy financial interest
(1) What did the first Congress create?
a court system (Judiciary Act), a Bill of Rights, a revenue tariff, and the State Department.
(1) Congress rejected Hamilton's plan to...
use government policy to subsidize manufacturing
(1) How did Jefferson seek to end the nationalizing policies of the Federalists?
by reducing the role of the federal government
(1) What did Jefferson believe in? -> 4
a nation of yeoman farmers, that government should be limited, the presidents should stress virtue and simpicity, and that freedom of speech was vital
(1) What was a goal of the Jeffersonian period? (cartoon)
(1) What was the Election of 1800 referred to as and why?
"another revolution" because the Federalists stepped down after they lost the election
(1) What was the Sedition Act aimed at?
silencing critics of President Adam's foreign policy in regard to England and France
(1) What did the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions state?
that the states had the power to delcare federal laws to be unconstitutional (Theory of Interpostion).
(1) What all supported states' rights? -> 4
The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, the Hartford Convention, and the South Carolina Exposition and Protest
(1) What did Marshall Court decisions tend to do?
promote business enterprise
(1) Why was Washington's Proclamation of Neutrality issued?
it was issued in response to French desire to invoke the Franco American Alliance.
(1) What gave American the right to use the port of New Orleans?
(2) Why did President Jefferson want to purchase Louisiana from the French?
because he wanted to preserve an agricultural society by making new lands open to farming and to provide a port for the shipping of western goods
(1) What gave America access to the Mississippi River?
Jefferson's Louisiana Purchase
(1) Jefferson's embargo policy... ->2
was an unpopular and unsuccessful attempt to deal with British and French denial American trade rights
(1) Where did isolationism originate?
the Farewell Address
(1) What did isolationism stress?
the lack of political and military agreements with other countries
(1) What did President Washington warn against in his Farewell Address?
he warned against the development of political parties and permanent alliances with other countries
(4) What case gave the Supreme Court the power of Judicial Review.
Marbury v. Madison (1803)
(1) What did successful slave rebellion in Haiti cause southern states to do?
limit the activities of slaves and freed blacks to prevent slave revolts in America
(1) Why did America declare war on Great Britain? -> 4
because of concern for its national honor, the impressment of sailors, British interference with U.S. commerce, and British aid to American Indians.
(1) Why was the War of 1812 fought?
to settle the issue of British impressment of American sailors
(1) What did the Hartford Convention demonstrate?
it demonstrated New England Federalist Party opposition fo the War of 1812
(5) What was the purpose of the Montroe Doctrine?
prevent new European colonies, to protect new republics in the Western Hemisphere, to indicate that the political systems of Europe and the Western Hemisphere were vastly different, and to assert American independence in the area of foreign policy
(2) What were developments in transportation between 1790 and 1830?
Roads and canals
What did the Missouri Compromise allow?
it allowed Maine into the union as a free state and banned slavery in most of the Louisiana Territory
(1) What did the tariffs passed between 1816 and 1828 protect?
(1) What were some of Eli Whitney's contributions?
the cotton gin and interchangeable parts
(1) What is The Lowell/Waltham System?
a plan to promote the expansion of manufacturing in New York
(1) In the early 1830's young unmarried women were the majority of workers where?
in the textile industry of Massachusetts
(1) Who replace women in the factories of New England in the 1840's an 1850's?
(1) Where did the biggest number of European immigrants in the first half of the 19th Century come from?
(1) What is remembered for its defense of a strong national union?
Daniel Webster's reply to Senator Hayne (the Webster-Hayne Debate)
(1) What were Jacksonian views of democracy?
they believed it was necessary to increase political role of the common man
(1) What was increased in the first half of the 19th century? ->2
literacy and the reading of newspapers
(1) What asserted that American individualism was the result of the lack of a permanent aristocracy?
Alex de Tocqueville's Deomocracy in America
(1) What did the Whigs supported?
the American System of Henry Clay
(1) What increased President Jackson's power?
the Nullification Crisis
(1) What led to the creation of the Doctrine of Nullification?
the Tariff of Abomination (1828)
(1) What did President Jackson support? -> 4
Indian Removal, the removal of BUS II funds, annexation of new territories, and the use of the veto power
(1) What was the Hudson River School known for?
(1) Agriculture developed as a result of what?
cheap land policy, regional specialization in the production of goods, land speculation, and improvements in transportation
(2) What was the biggest impact of the railroad and Erie Canal?
to connect Midwestern farmers to Eastern cities
(1) What did the American System seek to develop?
the national economy through transportation improvements
(1) What did the American System include? -> 4
a protective tariff, tax-supported internal improvements, increased trade within the country, and reliance on domestic resources
(1) What was The American System designed for
to make the American economy grow and become self-sufficient
(1) The effect of President Jackson's policy toward the Bank of the United States led to... ->3
over-speculation, a credit bubble, and an increase in the number of banks that issued their own currency
(1) What were the two primary sources of federal revenue before 1860?
land sales and tariffs
(1) Why did Jackson oppose the annexation of Texas?
because of the conflict it would cause over slavery
(1) What did President Jackson's Indian policy lead to?
the removal of the Indians to west of the Mississippi
(1) Describe the (Worcestor v. Georgia) case.
The Cherokees recieved support from the Supreme Court in their attempt to keep their tribal lands in Georgia. ---Trail of Tears---
(3) What percent of whites in the ante-bellum South owned no slaves? -> graph
(2) What did the American Colonization Society seek to do?
return freed slaves to Africa
(1) Why did the American Anti-Slavery Society split?
over the role of women in the abolition movement
The growth in the freed black population prior to the Civil War was or was not the resultof a national amendment to the Constitution.
(1) What was the increase in the slave population between 1810 and 1850 due to?
natural increase in birth rates
(1) What were free African Americans able to do despite of legal discrimination against them?
circulate some property
(3) Describe William Lloyd Garrison.
the most radical and outspoken advocate of the immediate and uncompensated emancipation abolition of slavery as editor of the Liberator
(1) Why was slavery supported in the South? -> 4
because blacks were viewed as inferior, slavery was supported by the Bible, the economy was dependent on it, and poor whites did not want to compete against freed blacks
(1) What were most northerners opinions upon slavery?
Most northerners accepted slavery where it existed but were opposed to its expansion.
(1) How did the Cult of Domesticity view the proper role of women as?
wives, mothers, and homemakers
(1) What advocated greater rights for woment
The Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions issued at the Seneca Falls Convention
(1) What were women most active in?
(1) What was the women’s movement of the ante-bellum period was characterized by? -> 4
links to other reform movements, organizing conventions, middle class participation, and legal and educational rights
(1) Dorthea Dix was or was notinvolved in the women's movement.
(treatment of the insane)
(1) What were attempts to create "perfectionist" societies.
Brook Farm and the Oneida Community
sought to create a cooperative society
(1) What did perfectionism describe?
the belief in the ability of people to create a better world
(1) What did the "burned-over district" refer to?
an area in New York where there was strong religious zeal created by the Second Great Awakening
(1) What did Transcendentalism stress?
the presence of God in nature
(1) What were educational advances the result of?
state and local public schools
(1) What were some goals of educational reformerss in ante-bellum years? -> 4
compulsory education laws, use of state and local tax money, teacher training schools, and a standardized school year length
(1) What did reformers believe about children?
they should be allowed to avoid adult responsibilities for as long as they could
(1) Where did Manifest Destiny cause concern?
(1) What did the Wilmot Proviso attempt to do?
prevent slavery in the territories acquired by the Mexican War
(1) Supporters of the Ostend Manifesto most likely supported what other policy?
(1) What did The Compromise of 1850 create?
in part, stronger Fugitive Slave Law
(2) What was the most controversial part of the Compromise of 1850?
the stronger Fugitive Slave Act
(1) Why was The Kansas-Nebraska Act controversial?
because it repealed the Missouri Compromise
(1) What did the concept of popular sovereignty state?
that the settlers of a territory should decide the status of slavery
(3) Why was the Republican Party created?
to prevent the further expansion of slavery into the national territories and this was expressed in it 1860 platform
(3) What did the Dred Scott case determine?
that the national government could not prohibit slavery in the territories and that blacks were not citizens
(1) What did the Dred Scott decision repeal?
it repealed the Missouri Compromise
(1) Why did northerners fear a slave power conspiracy?
because of the new Fugitive Slave law, the Dred Scott decision, the gag rule, and the Ostend Manifesto
(2) Why did the Know Nothing Party emerge?
out of the opposition to immigration of the Irish and Germans into the U.S.
(1) How was the Southern economy on the eve of the Civil War?
dependent on cotton production and did not have much industry
(1) Why and when did the North go to war?
1861; to preserve the Union
(1) Why was President Lincoln reluctant to ree the slaves?
because of concerns about reaction in the border states
(1) What was Presidnet Lincoln's biggest foreign policy concern?
that Great Britain would recognize the Confederacy
(1) Who saw advantages in a divided union?
both Great Britain and France
(1) What were the North's advantages over the South? -> 4
industrial power, railroads, foreign trade, and naval supremacy
(1) What prevented European involvement in the Civil War?
the Battle of Antietam (leading to the Emancipation Proclamation)
(1) What was the immediate impact of the Emancipation Proclamation?
to strengthen the moral cause of the Union
(1) During the Civil War, what laws did Republicans pass? -> 4
laws establishing high tariffs, a national banking system,loaning of money and making land grants, and the Homestead Act
(1) What was the effect of the Civil War? -> 4
to disrupt cotton exports, create inflation in the South, start the construction of a transcontinental railroad, and create a national banking system
(1) How were black union soldiers paid in comparison to whites?
Black Union soldiers were paid less than whites.
(1) Differences existed between who over legal status of ex-Confederate states.
Congress and presidents
(1) Radical Republicanism included... -> 4
support for the 14th Amendment, military occupation of the South, punishment of Confederate leaders, and limitation on presidential power
(1) What was Radical Reconstruction caused by? -> 4
the passing of Black Codes by Southern states, race riots, the election of former Confederate officials to Congress, and the refusal of southern states to ratify the 14th Amendment
(1) Why was the 14th Amendment passed?
to guarantee rights to former slaves
(1) What did Reconstruction Act provide?
it provided for military control of the South
(1) What did supporters of the concept of the New South want?
manufacturing and industry to grow in the South after the Civil War
(1) When was the Ku Klux Klan created?
(3) What did most ex-slaves become after the war?
(1) What led to poverty for freed blacks?
the crop-lien system and sharecropping
(1) Why did Reconstruction come to an end?
because of a compromise reached by the Democrats and Republicans after the election of 1876 (Compromise of 1877)
(1) By 1890, what was the major source of taxes for the national government?
custom duties (tariffs)
(4) What did The Dawes Act attempt to do?
end tribal culture, tribal ownership of land and replace it with individual ownership, and to assimilate Indians into the mainstream of American culture
(1) What was the Pullman strike caused by?
a cut in wages by the company
(1) Corporations bought other companies as a response to...?
competition (horizontal integration)
(1) Where did immigrants in the last two decades of the 19th Century come increasingly from?
Southern and Eastern Europe (New Immigrant)
(1) Why was the New Immigrant oppposed?
because they practices different religions, had different languages and culture, and were willing to work for lower wages, and were not familiar with the political system
(1) Where did immigrants in the last quarter of the Nineteenth Centurycome from?
European farms and villages
(1) What was immigration from Asia limited by?
Congressional legislation (The Chinese Exclusion Act)
(1) Itwas or was not considered the function of the federal government assure the welfare of the poor.
(2) What was the Gilded Age a period of?
frequent up and downs in the growth of the economy
(1) What did the Gospel of Wealth support?
the great amount of wealth in a few hands if it was used in part to better society
(1) What did Social Darwinsim emphasized?
that the law of competition was a cornerstone of civilization
(1) Why did immigrants settle in Midwestern cities?
because of the availability of unskilled jobs in the steel and meat-packing industries
(1) Explain railroad expansion -> 4
it opened new areas to agriculture, helped urbanize the country, led to new business techniques, and had lots of capital to support its growth
(1) What were unions involved in?
a number of violent strikes
(1) What created awareness of the mistreatment of Indians by the federal government?
Helen Hunt Jackson's, A Century of Dishonor
(1) Between 1865-1917, what were some advances in education? -> 4
many states created public universities as a result of the Morrill Land Grant Act, many colleges admitted women, many used the German model of for graduate education, and many scientific and engineering colleges were created
(1) What did unions seek to link union membership with?
(1) What did the American Federation of Labor concentrate on?
"bread and butter" unionism by bargaining for higher wages, fewer hours, and improved working conditions
(1) What kind of workers were organized in The American Federatin of Labor?
only skilled workers
(1) Why did the clothing industry grow?
because the use of the sewing machine which made clothes more affordable
(1) What lead to a decline of open-range ranching by the end of the nineteenth century? -> 4
Cold winters, a drop in cattle prices, overgrazing, and increased crop production
(1) What strengthened the position of the big business in the late 19th and early 20th centuries?
Supreme Court decisions
(3) What did W.E.B Dubois advocate for? -> 4
equality, voting rights, the creation of the NAACP, and the cooperation with whites for blacks
(1) What did Booker T. Washington's Atlanta Compromise speech call for?
blacks to help themselves through education and the acquisition of wealth
(1) What were the Black Codes aimed at?
limiting the economic and political rights of blacks after the end of reconstruction
(1) What were blacks who homestead in Kansas in the 1880's called?
(1) Who was a major opponent of lynchings?
Ida B. Wells
(1) What were women reformers and abolitionists divided over?
the granting of voting rights to freed black men
(1) What weakened 14th Amendment (Equal protection) provisions for blacks?
The Slaughter House Cases and the 1883 Civil Rights cases
(1) What did Public school systems created during Radical Reconstruction survive?
they survived the Redeemer governments of the New South era
(2) What case created the "separate but equal" doctrine and upheld segregation?
Plessey v. Ferguson (1896)
(1) Who supported Republican candidates?
(1) What increased dramatically in the last quarter of the 19th Century?
the area that was farmed
(2) Farmers felt exploited by the railroads through what?
"discriminatory" freight rates
(1) What did The Populist Party's Omaha Platform support? -> 3
the unlimited coinage of sillver as currency, a graduated income tax, the secret ballot, and ownership of railroads
(1) What did Bryan's "Cross of Gold" speech promote?
the free and unlimited coinage of silver
(1) Who did William Jennings Bryan receive support from?
farmers in the election of 1896
(1) Why did The Populist Party fail? -> 4
because it was viewed as being radical, racial tensions, the Democratic Party adopted many of its ideas, and western and southern farmers had different interests and strategies
(1) Why did the farmer's protest movement loose momentum? -> 4
because of the failure of the Populist Party in the election of 1896, the growth of urban areas increasing demand and prices for farm goods, crop failures in Europe leading to an increase in exports, and the discovery of gold in the Yukon
(1) What did farmers in the 1890's seek?
they sought state regulation of railroads, organized cooperatives, formed a third political party, and wanted inflation of the currency
(1) What was a major political problem in the Gilded Age -> cartoon
(1) What depended on political support from immigrants?
Urban bosses and machines
(1) What was a result of their social class?
where people lived in cities
(1) What were American cities in the early 20th Century characterized by?
machine politics corruption, mass transit systems, settlement house, and municipal reform movements
(1) What did the Settlement House Movement establish? -> 4
nurseries for working women, literacy classes, published reports on bad housing conditions, and offered classes on cooking and dressmaking
(1) Who led the Settlement House movement?
middle class, college educated women
(1) What was one of the biggest problems facing manicipalities (cities)?
inadequate sewer and water facilities
(1) Why did the death rate decline in American cities?
because of the building of sewers and water systems
(3) What did Jacob Riis', How the Other Half Lives deal with?
it dealt with urban poverty
(1) Who were critic of urban political machines/bosses?
(1) Why did muckrakers have influence?
because of the increase in circulaton of magazines and newpapers
(1) What was the primary purpose of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act in the 19th century?
to limit the power of unions
(1) What did the Sherman Anti-Trust Act have little immediate impact on?
the regulation big business
(1) What did the Sherman Anti-Trust Act seek to do? -> quote
regulate the power of monopolies
(1) What was prohibition aresultof?->4
activities of reformers, the sacrifice associated with WWI, the desire to reform society, and the effect of state prohibition laws
(1) Who were the leaders of Progressivism and what did they worry about?
urban middle class reformers; consumer issues
(1) Progressives rejected Social Darwinism's emphasis on what?
competition and conflict as a means improve society
(2) What were progressive proposals? -> 6
child labor laws, the Fourteen Points, prohibition (Volstead Act) and the National Origins Act, democratization of the political system, women's rights, and scientific approaches to social problems
(1) What was an example of progressive legislation?
the Pure Food and Drug Act
(1) What did Progressives seek to use federal government power for?
to regulate industry and labor
(1) What did Theodore Roosevelt support? ->2
efforts to assure the quality of food and drugs and to regulate monopolies and the railroad
(1) What did The Jungle lead to the passage of?
the Pure Food and Drug Act
(1) What did Woodrow Wilson support?
the creation of the Federal Trade Commission to counteract the influence of big business
(1) What was the creation of the Federal Reserve System for?
to make the currency and credit more elastic
(1) What were Amendments passed to the Constitution? -> 4
providing for an income tax, women's suffrage, prohibtion, and direct election of senator
(1) Where did women suffrage gains firstoccur?
in states west of the Mississippi
(1) What did Frontier life promote?
granting women the right to vote
Theodore Roosevelt was the first president to do what?
arbitrate a labor dispute (The Anthracite Coal Strike)
(2) What did them Turner Thesis/Frontier Thesis emphasize?
the role of western expansion and the frontier on the development of American history
(1) did the U.S. declare war on Spain in 1898?
because McKinley's weakness, yellow journalism, American business interests, and America's expanding role in the Caribbean
(5) What did the Open Door/Hay Notes insist on?
free trade with China
(1) What supported the idea that Anglo-Saxons (WASPs) a superior race that would colonize the world?
(1) What did Joseph Pulitzer achieve?
fame as a newspaper publisher (Yellow Journalism)
(1) The United Sates acquired Puerto Rico, Cuba, and the Phillippines as a result of what?
the Spanish American War
(1) What encouraged Jingosim?
yellow journalim, the naval policy of Mahan and TR, European imperialism, and Social Darwinism
(1) What justified an increased American role in Latin America?
the Roosevelt Corollary
(1) Why was the Roosevelt Corollary issued?
in response to the fear that financial instabilty in the Dominican Republic would lead to European intervention in the Western Hemisphere
(1) What was William Howard Taft's foreign policy in Latin American driven by?
concern for the U.S. economic and strategies interest
(1) What created controversy following the end of the Spanish-American War?
the acquistion of the Philippine Island
(2) Why did blacks first move to Northern cities?
they were looking for work during WWI
(1) What was the purpose of the war boards in WWI? -> 3
to encourage cooperation between business, labor, and government
(1) Why was The Birth of a Nation controversial?
because it depicted the Ku Klux Klan as heroic
(1) What did The Committee on Public information seek to do?
persuade Americans to fight for freedom and democracy, that Germans were barbarians, to buy binds to finance the war, and that German invasion of the U.S. was possible
(1) What did The Liberty Loan program seek to finance? -> cartoon
American involvement in WWI
(1) After the outbreak of WWI, what did Wilson seek recognition of?
American Neutality on the high seas
(1) What did President Wilson have to deal with?
violations of American neutrality from 1914-1917
(1) What did Wilson's Fourteen Points include? -> 4
open diplomacy, freedom of the seas the creation of the League of Nations,and self-determination for ethnic groups in old empires
(2) Why did the U.S. not join the League of Nations?
because of fear of getting into another war, rivalries between President Wilson and Henry Cabot Lodge, Wilson’s illness, and unwillingness by some Senators to compromise at all
(1) What did Wilson refuse to compromise on?
on unconditional acceptance of the U.S. to the charter of the League of Nations
(1) What did President Wilson attempt to do? -> Cartoon
get public support for the League of Nations
(1) What did presidents of the 1920's support?
tax cuts for wealthy Americans
(1) What did Andrew Mellon's economic policy do?
lower taxes to increase the amound of money available for investment
(1) What decade was the decade of low prices for farmers?
(1) Who were the least prosperous group in the 1920's?
(1) What did Presidents Harding and Coolige use?
regulatory agencies to serve the interests of business
(1) What did the Red Scare, following WWI, lead to? -> Cartoon
the deportation of aliens accused of radical political activities
(2) What did the Palmer Raids attempt to do?
attempt to deport radical aliens who supported communism and anarchism
(2) Immigration laws (National Origins Acts) sought to favor who?
immigrants from Northern and Western Europe
(1) What did the National Origins Act result in?
the decrease in European immigrants in the 1920's
(1) What did the Ku Klux Klan favor?
white supremacy and limits on immigration
(1) What was the Kellogg-Briand Pact?
a multilateral treaty banning offensive war
(1) What was the Washington Naval Conference an example of?
the isolationism of America foreign policy after WWII
(1) Despite a general policy of isloationism, what was the U.S. involved in?
international finace and reparation plans (Dawes Plan)
(1) What challenged traditional female roles in dress and morality?
(2) What did writers of the 1920's stress with American society?
(1) Some writers criticized middle class conformity and materialism.Nametwo
Sinclair Lewis and F. Scott Fitzgerald
(1) Who advocated the use of birth control to prevent unwanted pregnancies?
(1) What case dealt with the teaching of evolution?
the Scopes Trial
(1) What was the Scopes Trial an expression of?
cultural conflict between fundamentalism and modernism
(2) What was the Harlem Renaissance a period of? -> 2
black artistic and intellectual achievement
(1) Who were involved in the Harlem Renaissance? ->4
James Weldon Johnson, Langston Hughes, Zora Neale Hurston, and Josephine Baker
(1) Who was the leader of the United Negro Improvement Association?
(1) What did Marcuc Garvey support?
black pride and nationalism
(2) What did the Depression cause Americans to do?
move around the country looking for work
(1) When were non-citizen Mexicans returned to Mexico
(1) What was the purpose of the Bonus Expeditionay Force?
to convince the government to pay a bonus to WWI veterans
(1) What was used to break up the Bonus Army?
the federal government used military force
(1) What was the Depression caused by?
by overproduction of agricultural and manufactures goods
(1) What was the Great Depression caused by?
dislocations in international trade (The Hawley-Smoot Tariff)
(1) How did President Hoover attempt to deal with the Great Depression?
by supporting the creation of the Reconstruction Finance Corporation
(1) What did President Hoover's response to the Depression emphasize?
the importance of private charity
(1) What were Hoovervilles?
shantytowns (temporary homes) built by the poor and unemployed during the Depression
(1) What did The Hundred Days legislation include? ->4
banking regulation, unemployment relief, agricultural adjustment, and home mortgage support
(1) What did FDR's New Deal proposals include? -> 4
protection for unions (NLRA), payment to farmers (AAA), public power generating facilities (TVA), and the creation of business codes (NIRA)
(1) What did FDR's policies include?
restricting agricultural production, restoring confidence in banks, dificits, and creation of jobs in the public sector
(1) How did the National Industrial Recovery Act seek to end the Great Depression?
by reducing competition
(1) What did The Tennessee Valley Authority do?
built dams and made rural electrification possible
(3) What did FDR's farm policy (AAA) seek to do?
raise prices by lowering production by reducing the amount of land under cultivation
(1) What gave workers the right to organize and collectively bargin?
The Wagner Labor Relations Act
(1) Why did the American Federation of Labor split up in the 1930's?
over a dispute concerning the role of skilled and unskilled labor in the union movement
(2) Who formed the Congress of industrial Organization and why?
John L. Lewis; because he believed that unskilled laborer was becoming the largest aspect of the labor movement
(1) Who led an effort to create an old-age pension program?
Dr. Francis Townsend
(1) What was a failed attempt to increase the number of justices on the Supreme Court?
FDR's Court Packing Plan
(1) As a result of the election of 1936, what party did blacks become permanent supporters of?
the Democratic Party
(1) What did the Social Security Act create?
a tax to transfer $$$ from workers to pensioners
(1) What did Pearl Harbor take place after?
after the negotiations between the U.S. and Japan reached a stalemate
(2) Why did the economy grow (in WWII)?
a result of military production related to WWII
(1) What didn't foreign policy distinguish between during the 1930's? -> Cartoon
aggressors and those being attacked (Neutrality Acts)
(1) When Japan invaded Manchuria in violation of treaty obligation, what did the U.S. do?
refuse to cognize Japan's actions (Stimson Doctrine)
(2) Why did the U.S. seek greater cooperation with Latin America?
in order to create a hemispheric defense plan against fascism and renounced the right to militarily intervene there (Good Neighbor Policy)
(2) During WWII, what happened to women, Japanese-Americans, and blacks?
women qaed the work force, Japanese-Americans were placed in internment camps, gas and sugar was rationed, and blacks continued the migration to northern cities
(1) Women who took industrial jobs during WWII earned more or less than in previous jobs.
(1) Why was the atomic bomb dropped on Japan?
to keep the USSR out of the war, save American lives, show American military power, and to force the unconditional surrender of Japan
(1) Why were Japanese-Americans placed in interment camps?
because it was feared they would be involved in subversive activities which would aid a Japanese invasion of the U.S.
(1) What was the purpose of the Lend-Lease Act?
to provide weapons to the Allies
(1) What case stated the Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the internment of Japanese Americans as a wartime necessity?
Korematsu v. U.S.
(3) Who suggested containment and what is it?
George Kennan; to limit the expansion of the influence of the Soviet Union
(1) Why did President Truman create the Containment policy?
to resist communism in Turkey and Greece
What was the purpose of the Marshall Plan?
to aid the economic recovery of Europe after WWII
(1) How did President Truman respond to the Korean War?
by seeking support from the United Nations
(2) McCarthyism -> 4
grew as a result of the Soviet’s developing an atomic bomb, the uncovering of spies in America, Truman’s use of anti-communism in foreign policy, and reaction to the successful Communist revolution in China
(1) What was Truman's decision to commit American troops to Korea an attempt to do?
to remove the stigma from the Democratic Party of the loss of China
(1) In 1954, what overthrew a communist government in Guatemala?
the CIA using covert action
(1) How did the U.S. respond to the launching of Sputnik?
by expanding federal aid to science education
(1) What did President Eisenhower warn against in his Farewell Address?
the development of a Military Industrial Complex
(1) Foreign policy crises of the Eisenhower Administration: -> 4
Sputnik, the Suez Crisis, the U-2 incident and Castro's takeover of Cuba
(1) The US role in Vietnam increase as a result of what?
the withdrawal of the French
(3) What settled the Cuban Missle Crisis?
the removal of the missiles by the USSR and a U.S. promise not to invade Cuba to remove Castro
What did the involvement in Vietnam come from?
the assumptions of America’s role in the world after WWII (containment)
(1) What did North Vietnamese attacks on the U.S. navy in the Gulf of Tonkin lead to?
an escalation of the American war effort
(2) What did the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution allow the President to do and what did it lead to?
take any measures necessary and led to the use of combat troops in Vietnam
(1) What did the Tet Offensive lead to?
a decline in popular support for the war in Vietnam
(1) What was the cost of the Vietnam War limited by? -> Cartoon
ability of LBJ to achieve his domestic programs
(2) What was SALT and the opening to China aspects of?
President Nixon’s policy of détente
(1) Who ended American military involvment in Vietnam (Vietnamization)?
(1) Who's foreign policy was plagued by the Iranian Hostage Crisis?
(1) Why did the Dixiecrats brake away fom the Democrats in 1948?
because the Democrats supported national civil rights legislation
(1) What was the Supreme Court's most important decision in the 1950's concerning the rights of minorities?
Brown v. Board of Education
(3) What Supreme Court case ruled that segregation on public schools denied blacks the equal protection of the laws and what other Supreme Court case did it reverse?
Brown v. Board of Education and Plessey v. Ferguson
(1) When was the Civil Rights Commission created and what power did it give?
1957; the power only to investigate charges of discrimination
(1) Who pursued the peaceful integration of the races?
(1) Who did not support ML King's non-violent civil rights strategy?
(1) What two groups both sought to increase the sense of Black Nationalism and solidarity?
the Black Panthers and the Nation of Islam
(1) What did the Black Power movement of the 1960's seek?
black control of political and economic life
(1) What were used by SNCC to protest segregation in restaurants?
(1) Where did student sit-in protest segregation?
(2) George Wallace's American Independent Party appealed to middle class individuals who were...? ->2
opposed to civil disobedience in civil rights and anti-war demonstrations and exploited race as a national political issue
(1) What was the reason for the economic boom in the 1950's?
consumer demand and saving
(1) What did the Gi Bill do?
increase college enrollment after WWII
(1) After WWII why did women leave the workplace?
in order to allow returning soldiers to have their jobs
(2) What questioned the role of women in post-war America?
Betty Friedan (The Feminine Mystique)
(1) What did The National Organization for Women do?
challenge sex discrimination in the workplace
(1) Who wrote about the disillusionmen of American society?
David Riesman (The Lonely Crowd) and other commentators of the 1950's
(1) What launched the enviromental movement in 1962?
Rachel Carson's Silent Spring
(2) What did Rock 'n' Roll originate in?
black rhythm, blues, and jazz
(1) During the 1960's, what did protests occur over? -> 4
Vietnam, the status of women, the economic status of non-whites and bureaucracy
(1) What was Kent State University the site of?
the death of four students protesting against the war in Vietnma
(1) What is the part of the work force that has grown the most since 1950?
(1) What did the 1970's see an increase in? ->4
Christian Fundamentalism, support for the environmental movement, women holding political office, and the average age of Americans
(1) How were Jimmy Carter and Ronald Reagon similar in?
they both emphasized that they were Washington outsiders
(1) What was the high inflation rates of the 1970's a result of?
spending on Vietnam and on social welfare programs
(1) What were suburbs viewed as? -> Picture
a feature of the growth of post-war conformity
(1) What did Phyllis Schlafly lead?
he led the effort to oppose the ratification of the Equal Rights Amendment
(1) What did the "graying" of America since the 1970's do?
threaten the Social Security system
(1) What was the decade after WWII characterized by? -> 4
prosperity, suburbanization, a “baby boom”, and the growth of the black civil rights movement.
(1) Through what did Truman try to expand on the New Deal?
through his Fair Deal program
(1) Why was President Truman unable to expand the New Deal?
because of the opposition from Republicans and conservative Southern Democrats
(1) What did the Taft-Hartley Act do?
limit the power of labor unions
(1) What happened during Eisenhower's presidency?
the economy grew, the baby boom took place, Blacks continued to move to Northern cities, and the Interstate Highway system was begun
(1) How did President Eisenhower feel about the New Deal?
he accepted the New Deal but did not significantly expand it
(2) What caused the rapid increase in suburbs following WWII?
the Federal Highway Act of 1956
(1) Who pass the Economic Opportunity Act?
the Kennedy Administration
(1) What were the 1968 divisions in the country shown through? -> 4
assassinations of ML King and Robert Kennedy, urban riots, anti-war demonstrations in Chicago, and support for George Wallace’s American Independent Party
(1) What sought to break te cycle of poverty through education and job training?
The Great Society's anti-poverty program
(1) What lead to increased opposition to the Vietnam War?
The Tet Offensive
(1) What was Richard Nixon's political comeback in 1968 the result of?
the split in the Democratic Party over Vietnam policy
(1) What was the economy during the Carter presidency marked by? -> 3
high interest rates, inflation increased government spending, and rising unemployment
(1) What increased support for the anti-nuclear power movement?
The Three Mile Island Incident
(1) What did Reaganomics lead to?
increase in incomes for the wealthy and encourage investment by the wealthy through tax cuts