Bio annex

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  1. What are the two important functions of a seed?
    • To protect a new plant during the embryo stage
    • To disperse off-spring to new locations away from thier parents
  2. What do seed plants always produce?
    Seeds and fruit
  3. Why do seed plants produce fruit?
    To attract animals to eat the fruit containing the seeds so the seeds will be distributed
  4. What did the first vascular plants lack?
  5. What were the first forests composed of?
    Vascular plants that did not produce seeds
  6. Like non-vascualar plants, what do ferns and other seedless vascular plants have?
    Swimming sperm that require a film of water for fertilization
  7. When did forests of vascular plants lacking seeds thrive?
    In the warm, humid climate of the late Paleozoic era
  8. What are teh most abundant and familiar group of seedless vascular plants?
  9. What stage are the lives of non-vascular plants dominated by?
    teh gametophyte stage
  10. What do fern gametophytes produce thier eggs and sperm in and where are these located?
    • Eggs in archegonia
    • Sperm in antheridia
    • Located on the lower surface of the plant
  11. What do fern sporophytes consist of?
    Roots, horizontal underground stems called rhizomes, and long, often highly divided leaves called fronds
  12. Where do clusters of spore-producing sporangia form?
    On the lower surgafes of fronds
  13. Explain a ferns life cycle.
    The clusters of sporangia found on the underside of fronds undergo mieosis to create haploid spores. The haploid spores drop off the leaves into the ground and form a gametophyte. On the gametophyte is the antheridium and archegonia. The antheridium undergoes mitosis to create sperm and the archegonia undergoes mitosis to create eggs. Sperm swim to eggs and fertilize them to create a zygote that grows into the sporophyte.
  14. What were the first seed plants?
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Bio annex
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