Extracellular fluid volume is increased with hypokalemia.
Opposite of Hyperadrenalism.
what are the different categories of renal disease?
acute renal shutdown
chronic renal insufficiency
what causes acute renal shutdown?
acute damage to the tubules and necrosis
what is acute glomerulonephritis?
causes acute renal shutdown
results from an antigen-antibody reaction in which the glomeruli become inflamed (from streptococci A)
inflammatory reaction causing total or partial blockage of large # of glomeruli & those that are not blocked develop increased permeability of glomerular membrane, allowing large amounts of protein & RBCs to leak into Glomerular Filtrate (GF).
Acute form frequently becomes chronic.
what causes acute damage to the tubules and necrosis?
(common cause of acute renal shutdown)
Poisons: carbon tetrachloride & mercuric ions have specific nephrotoxic action
Severe Acute Renal Ischemia: usually a result of severe circulatory shock when heart fails to pump sufficient amounts of blood to body
Transfusion reaction: where hemolysis of large amounts of RBCs releases Hg (that precipitate in the nephron) & vasoconstriction agent diminishing renal blood flow
what is the main characteristic of chronic renal insufficiency?
decreased number of nephrons
what are the causes of chronic renal insufficiency
Chronic glomerulonephritis & polynephritis
Traumatic or congenital absence of a kidney: decreases nephrons by ½
Congenital polycystic disease: when large cycsts develop in kidneys & destroy surrounding nephrons by compression Urinary tract obstruction: caused by renal stones
Arteriosclerosis: when small arteries supplying portions of kidneys become blocked
what is pyelonephritis?
an infectious and inflammatory process that usually begins in the renal prelvis and extends progressively into renal parencyma.
invading infection results in progressive destruction of the functional renal tissue usually affecting more medulla of the kidney.
patients have reasonably normal renal functions with inability to concentrate urine.
what are the characteristics of nephrotic syndrome?
loss of large quantities of plasma proteins into the urine due to increased permeability of the glomerular membrane, causing fall in colloid osmotic pressure & serious edema.
usually associated w/renal insufficiency caused by