Allergic Reaction Drugs

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Author:
wesparm
ID:
152424
Filename:
Allergic Reaction Drugs
Updated:
2012-05-06 02:28:04
Tags:
Medic 13
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Description:
Medic 13 Allergic Reaction Drugs
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  1. Dexamethasone (Decadron)
    - Steroid

    - Description: Dexamethasone is a long-acting synthetic drenocorticoid with intense anti-inflammatory activity. It prevents the accumulation of inflammation generating cells at the site of infection or injury.

    - Indications: Anaphalaxis, COPD, asthma, spinal cord edema.

    • - Contraindications: NO absolute contraindications in the emergency setting.
    • - Relative Contraindications: systemic fungal infections, acute infections, tuberculosus, vericella, or vaccinia, or live virus vaccinations.

    - Precautions: Herpes simplex, keratitis, myasthenia gravis, hepatic or renal impairment, diabetes, CHF, seizures, psychotic disorders, hyperthyroidism, and GI ulceration

    • - Dosage/Route: 4 to 24 mg IV/IM
    • - Pedi: 0.5 to 1.0 mg/kg
  2. Diphenhydramine (Benadryl)
    - Antihistamine

    - Description: Diphenhydramine blocks histamine release, thereby reducing bronchoconstriction, vasodilation, and edema.

    - Indications: Anaphalaxis, Allergic reactions, and distoric reactions

    - Contraindications: Asthma or other lower respiratory diseases.

    - Precautions: May induce hypotension, headache, palpitations, tachycardia, sedation, drowsiness, and/or disturbed coordination.

    • - Dosage/Route: 25 to 50 mg IV/IM
    • - Pedi: 2 to 5 mg/kg
  3. Methylprednisolone (Solu-medrol)
    - Corticosteroid/Anti-inflammatory

    - Description: Methylprednisolone is a synthetic adrenal corticosteroid, effective as an anti-inflammatory and used in the management of allergic reactions and in some cases of shock. It is sometimes used in the treatment of spinal cord injury.

    - Indications: Spinal cord injury, asthma, severe anaphalaxis, COPD

    - Contraindications: No absolute contraindications in the emergency setting.

    - Precautions: Only a single dose should be given in the prehospital setting

    • - Dosage/Route: Asthma/COPD/Anaphalaxis: 125 to 250 mg IV/IM
    • - Pedi: 1 to 2 mg/kg/dose IV/IM
    • - Spinal Cord Injury: 30 mg/kg over 15 minutes
  4. Epinephrine (Adrenalin)
    - Sympathomimetic

    - Description: Epinephrine is a naturally occuring catecholamine that increases heart rate, cardiac contractile force, myocardial electrical activity, systemic vascular resistance, and systolic blood pressure and decreases overall airway resistance and automaticity.

    - Indications: To restore rhythm in cardiac arrest, and severe allergic reactions

    - Contraindications: Narrow angle glaucoma, hemorrhagic, traumatic, or cardiac shock

    • - Dosage/Route: Arrest: 1 mg of 1:10,000 IV/3 to 5 mins (ET 2 to 2.5 mg 1:1,000)
    • - Pedi: 0.01 mg/kg of 1:10,000 IV/IO (ET 0.1 mg/kg 1:1,000) All subsequent doses 0.1 mg/kg IV/IO. no max
    • - Adult Bradycardia: 2 to 5 mcg/min (IV drip)
    • - Allergic Reactions: 0.3 to 0.5 mg of 1:1,000 subcutaneously/5 to 15 mins as needed or 0.5 to 1 mg 1:10,000 IV if subcutaneous ineffective or severe reaction.
    • - Pedi: 0.01 mg/kg (Max 0.5) of 1:1,000 SQ/10 to 15 mins or 0.01 mg/kg of 1:10,000 IV if subcutaneous dose ineffective or severe
    • - Asthma/COPD: 0.3 mg 1:1,000 SQ

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