Geo 5 Chapter 12
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Geo 5 Chapter 12
Tectonics, Earthquakes, and Volcanism
What kind of faults are there?
Transform (sliding), normal, and reverse fault.
What are composite/strato volcanoes?
Volcanoes that are the result of a series of explosive volcanic eruptions, these volcanoes are more conically shaped and formed along plate boundaries
What occurs when the top of a composite volcano gets sheared off?
A glowing gas cloud appears.
What occurs when silica is incorporated in magma?
The magma becomes viscous at a lower melting point.
What is/ are the characteristics of a shield volcano?
A shield volcano is built from effusive eruptions. It is gently sloped with a shape similar in outline to a shield of armor lying face up on the ground.
Define cinder cone.
Cinder cones are small, and made of ash and cinder
A caldera is a large, basin-shaped depression that forms when summit material on a volcanic mountain collapses inward after an eruption
Why is Hawaii moving?
The island chain was formed by a hot spot, and it moves away from the hot spot towards the northwest so new islands can form
Why do the Hawaiian islands get progressively smaller as you move north?
Weathering makes them smaller, and no forces are creating new landmasses.
What is a sea spout?
An island that doesn't make it to the surface.
What kinds of faults are there?
Transform, normal, reverse, and overthrust faults.
What is the deepest place on Earth?
The Mariana Trench.
What are forshocks? How often do they occur?
Forshocks are small quakes before a big earthquake. They only occur 5% of the time.
Where is the epicenter of an earthquake located?
The area at the surface directly above the focus.
What are the three factors that determine the damage done by an earthquake?
Magnitude, distance from center, and bedrocks.
How do Palm Oases form?
They form near subduction zones along faults that have a groundwater table. Water surfaces along the fault.
Where does the San Andreas fault run to and from.
From No Cal to So Cal and almost to Mexico.
What are P waves?
Pressure waves. They cause compression and rarefaction (?) waves.
What are S waves?
Surface waves. They cause undulations.
Do P waves or S waves cause more damage? Which ones will you feel first?
S waves cause more damage. You feel P waves first.
How do long waves undulate?
What is an anticline?
The area long the ridge of a fold where layers slipe downward away from the axis.
What is a syncline?
The area in the trough of the fold where layers slope downward toward the axis.