Clin Med III
Card Set Information
Clin Med III
Clin Med III
Clin Med III
Overall in lungs there is more _______ than _______
perfusion than ventilation
A/A gradient is the difference between what?
Arteriolar O2 and alveolar O2
What information does A-a gradient provide you?
efficiency of O2 exchange between alveolus and capillary
Is there other way of measuring efficiency of O2 exchange by the lungs?
PaO2/FiO2 ratio > 400 is?
PaO2/FiO2 < 300 means what?
oxygen exchange impairment
PaO2/FiO2 < 200 means what?
severe lung disease
What are causes of hypoxemia?
decrease in PiO2, Hypoventilation, low v/q mismatch, R to L shunt, diffusion impairment
What cause of hypoxemia is not responsive to oxygen supplementation?
R to left shunt
What are noises from the upper respiratory tract?
What does it mean when a dog has lack of lung sounds and increased heart sounds?
chest full of fluid
What are some examples of nasal and paranasal disorders presenting complaints?
nasal discharge, epistaxis, sneezing, facial deformity
What are signs that all nasal diseases have?
mucosal edema, inflammation, +/- secondary bacterial infections
What are the main "things" that like to be up noses and cause mucopurulent discharge +/- blood?
fungal infection, foreign body, neoplasia
In regards to advanced diagnostics, what should you do first in regards to respiratory diseases?
nasal radiography, CT, MRI, then do rhinoscopy
What are signs of pharyngeal diseases?
stertor, reverse sneezing, gagging, retching, dysphagia, airway obstruction
What are examples of laryngeal diseases in dogs and cats?
laryngeal paralysis, laryngeal neoplasia, obstructive laryngitis, laryngeal collapse, web formation, trauma, foreign body, extraluminal mass, acute laryngitis
What are examples of pharyngeal diseases in dogs and cats?
brachycephalic airway syndrome, elongated soft palate, nasopharyngeal polyp, foreign body, neoplasia (lymphoma in cats), abscess, granuloma, extraluminal mass
What is the most common clinical sign of lower respiratory diseases?
What type of cough does a goose honk sound mean?
What type of cough does a harsh and paroxydmal (suprise cough) mean?
What does a soft cough mean?
pneumonia, pulmonary edema.
What are examples of productive coughs that have mucous or exudate?
canine infectious tracheobronchitis, canine chronic bronchitis, idiopathic feline bronchitis, allergic bronchitis, bacterial bronchitis or pneumonia, parasitis infection, aspiration pneumonia, fungal pneumonia
What are examples of productive coughs with hemoptysis?
heartworm, pulmonary neoplasia, fungal, foreign bodies, severe CHF, thromboembolism, torsions, bleeding disorders, DIC
What are diseases of pulmonary parenchyma?
infectious, aspiration pneumonia, eosinophilic lung disease, idiopathich interstitial pneumonia, neoplasia, contusions, pulmonary hypertension, pulmonary thromboembolism
What are viral infectious parenchymal disease?
canine influenza, canine distemper, calcivirus, FIP
What are fungal infectious parenchymal diseases?
blastomycosis, histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis
What are parasitic infectious parenchymal diseases?
heartworm, paragonimus, aelurostrongylus, capillaries, crenosoma
What are bacterial infectious parenchymal diseases?
What are protozoal infectious parenchymal diseases?
What percent of pneumonias will have neutrophilia + left shift?
What can an echocardiography detect?
What causes bronchial pattern?
canine chronic bronchitis, feline bronchitis, allergic bronchitis, canine infectious tracheobronchitis, bacterial and mycoplasma infection, parasites
What causes interstitial lung patterns?
infections, neoplasia, eosinophilic lung disease, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, hemorrhage, reticular, nodular
What causes alveolar pattern?
pulmonary edema, bacterial pneumonia, aspiration pneumonia, contusions, PTE, neoplasia, fungal pneumonia, DIC
What can be used to see < 3mm masses?
What should always be done for pleural space effusions/disease?
What are common diseases associated with pure and modified transudate?
right sided heart failure, pericardial disease, hypoalbuminemia, neoplasia, diaphragmatic hernia
What are common diseases associated with non septic exudate?
FIP, neoplasia, diaphragmatic hernia, lung lobe torsion
What are common diseases associated with septic exudate?
What are common diseases associated with hemorrhagic effusion?
trauma, bleeding disorders, neoplasia, lung lobe torsion
What are factors of brachycephalic airway syndrome?
stenotic nares, elongated soft palate, everted laryngeal saccules, +/- hypoplastic trachea, +/- end stage laryngeal collapse