Clin Med III

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HLW
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152478
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Clin Med III
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2012-05-06 08:57:50
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Clin Med III
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Clin Med III
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  1. Overall in lungs there is more _______ than _______
    perfusion than ventilation
  2. A/A gradient is the difference between what?
    Arteriolar O2 and alveolar O2
  3. What information does A-a gradient provide you?
    efficiency of O2 exchange between alveolus and capillary
  4. Is there other way of measuring efficiency of O2 exchange by the lungs?
    PaO2/FiO2 ratio
  5. PaO2/FiO2 ratio > 400 is?
    normal
  6. PaO2/FiO2 < 300 means what?
    oxygen exchange impairment
  7. PaO2/FiO2 < 200 means what?
    severe lung disease
  8. What are causes of hypoxemia?
    decrease in PiO2, Hypoventilation, low v/q mismatch, R to L shunt, diffusion impairment
  9. What cause of hypoxemia is not responsive to oxygen supplementation?
    R to left shunt
  10. What are noises from the upper respiratory tract?
    stertor
  11. What does it mean when a dog has lack of lung sounds and increased heart sounds?
    chest full of fluid
  12. What are some examples of nasal and paranasal disorders presenting complaints?
    nasal discharge, epistaxis, sneezing, facial deformity
  13. What are signs that all nasal diseases have?
    mucosal edema, inflammation, +/- secondary bacterial infections
  14. What are the main "things" that like to be up noses and cause mucopurulent discharge +/- blood?
    fungal infection, foreign body, neoplasia
  15. In regards to advanced diagnostics, what should you do first in regards to respiratory diseases?
    nasal radiography, CT, MRI, then do rhinoscopy
  16. What are signs of pharyngeal diseases?
    stertor, reverse sneezing, gagging, retching, dysphagia, airway obstruction
  17. What are examples of laryngeal diseases in dogs and cats?
    laryngeal paralysis, laryngeal neoplasia, obstructive laryngitis, laryngeal collapse, web formation, trauma, foreign body, extraluminal mass, acute laryngitis
  18. What are examples of pharyngeal diseases in dogs and cats?
    brachycephalic airway syndrome, elongated soft palate, nasopharyngeal polyp, foreign body, neoplasia (lymphoma in cats), abscess, granuloma, extraluminal mass
  19. What is the most common clinical sign of lower respiratory diseases?
    cough
  20. What type of cough does a goose honk sound mean?
    tracheal collapse
  21. What type of cough does a harsh and paroxydmal (suprise cough) mean?
    bronchitis
  22. What does a soft cough mean?
    pneumonia, pulmonary edema.
  23. What are examples of productive coughs that have mucous or exudate?
    canine infectious tracheobronchitis, canine chronic bronchitis, idiopathic feline bronchitis, allergic bronchitis, bacterial bronchitis or pneumonia, parasitis infection, aspiration pneumonia, fungal pneumonia
  24. What are examples of productive coughs with hemoptysis?
    heartworm, pulmonary neoplasia, fungal, foreign bodies, severe CHF, thromboembolism, torsions, bleeding disorders, DIC
  25. What are diseases of pulmonary parenchyma?
    infectious, aspiration pneumonia, eosinophilic lung disease, idiopathich interstitial pneumonia, neoplasia, contusions, pulmonary hypertension, pulmonary thromboembolism
  26. What are viral infectious parenchymal disease?
    canine influenza, canine distemper, calcivirus, FIP
  27. What are fungal infectious parenchymal diseases?
    blastomycosis, histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis
  28. What are parasitic infectious parenchymal diseases?
    heartworm, paragonimus, aelurostrongylus, capillaries, crenosoma
  29. What are bacterial infectious parenchymal diseases?
    mycoplasma
  30. What are protozoal infectious parenchymal diseases?
    toxoplasmosis
  31. What percent of pneumonias will have neutrophilia + left shift?
    50%
  32. What can an echocardiography detect?
    pulmonary hypertension
  33. What causes bronchial pattern?
    canine chronic bronchitis, feline bronchitis, allergic bronchitis, canine infectious tracheobronchitis, bacterial and mycoplasma infection, parasites
  34. What causes interstitial lung patterns?
    infections, neoplasia, eosinophilic lung disease, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, hemorrhage, reticular, nodular
  35. What causes alveolar pattern?
    pulmonary edema, bacterial pneumonia, aspiration pneumonia, contusions, PTE, neoplasia, fungal pneumonia, DIC
  36. What can be used to see < 3mm masses?
    CT/MRI
  37. What should always be done for pleural space effusions/disease?
    TAP
  38. What are common diseases associated with pure and modified transudate?
    right sided heart failure, pericardial disease, hypoalbuminemia, neoplasia, diaphragmatic hernia
  39. What are common diseases associated with non septic exudate?
    FIP, neoplasia, diaphragmatic hernia, lung lobe torsion
  40. What are common diseases associated with septic exudate?
    pyothorax
  41. What are common diseases associated with hemorrhagic effusion?
    trauma, bleeding disorders, neoplasia, lung lobe torsion
  42. What are factors of brachycephalic airway syndrome?
    stenotic nares, elongated soft palate, everted laryngeal saccules, +/- hypoplastic trachea, +/- end stage laryngeal collapse

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