Clin Med II

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  1. What are made in the liver by oxidation of cholesterol?
    bile acids
  2. Bile acids can facilitate absorption of what?
    lipid soluble vitamins (ADEK)
  3. What is it called when excess glucose following a meal, becomes glycogen?
  4. What is glycogen as source of glucose between meals, is short term?
  5. What is glucose production when glycogen stores exhausted, is long term, and is important in herbivores?
  6. What clotting factors does the liver NOT produce?
  7. What produces endogenous cholesterol?
  8. What is used in the formation of cholic acids, portion of bile acids, used in the production of hormones (progesterone, estrogen, testosterone)?
  9. Cholesterol is precipitated in the stratum corneum, what does this do?
    provides protection, prevents absorption of water-soluble compounds and prevents evaporation of water
  10. What does the liver store?
    glycogen, vitamins A, D, B12
  11. What does failure to excrete bilirubin lead to?
  12. What does failure to excrete nitrogenous wastes lead to?
    hyperammoniemia which is toxic to the CNS and leads to neurologic disease.
  13. What are the symptoms of hepatic encephalopathy?
    cortical dysfunction, altered mentation, circling, yawning (horses), and head pressing
  14. If the liver fails, this leads to phylloerythrin entering systemic blood, skin, which is activated by UV light, this leads to what?
    tissue peroxidation and dermatitis, skin necrosis, photosensitization
  15. Failure to secrete/recirculate bile acids leads to what?
    poor digestion of fat, diarrhea
  16. What are the clinical signs to hypoalbuminemia?
    ventral/peripheral edema, ascites
  17. How will failure to produce clotting factors affect the patient?
    prolonged extrinsic, prolonged intrinsic, potentiates bleeding diathesis, typically end stage clinical signs in horses
  18. What does failure to produce/store glycogen mean?
    no glycogen reserves
  19. What does failure of gluconeogenic function lead to?
    inability to provide glucose from non-CHO precursors
  20. What does failure of FA/ lipid metabolism lead to?
    elevated triglycerides in blood, fatty liver syndrome.
  21. In UA what is indicative of liver failure in small animals?
    dilute urine sg, ammonium biurate crystals, bilirubinuria (NOT in cats), no urobilinogen present
  22. What tests indicate hepatocellular injury?
    ALT (dogs), SDH, AST
  23. What are tests that show liver function?
    albumin, glucose, cholesterol, BUN, bilirubin
  24. Elevated bile acids are highly specific for liver disease, but are not specific for what?
    type of liver disease
  25. What may elevated NH3+ in blood indicate?
    reduced hepatic mass, failure of liver to produce urea, shunting of blood around the liver
  26. Does the degree of elevation of ammonia level correlate with clinical signs?
  27. What is ultrasound guided, useful to confirm diagnosis, useful to determine prognosis?
    liver biopsy
  28. What are methods of airway protection?
    nasal passages filter large particles, bronchial epithelium provides a mucociliary escalator, alveolar macrophages, important in pulmonary disease prevention
  29. What cells are responsible for surfactant production?
    type II cells
  30. Horses are obligate nasal breathers, to increase oxygen delivery to the alveolus, they must dilate their what?
    nares, nasal passages, and nasopharynx
  31. What is included in the extrathoracic airway?
    nasal cavity, nasopharynx, larynx, trachea
  32. What is included in the intrathoracic airway?
    trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, terminal bronchioles
  33. What can alter the amount of O2 delivered to the alveolus and pulmonary capillary?
    airway disease, alveolar/pulmonary capillary disease, parenchymal disease, pleural disease, CNS disease
  34. What involves thickening of alveolar epithelium, capillary endothelium or interstitium, affects transport of O2/CO2 for gas exchange, diffusion impairment?
    alveolar/capillary/interstitial disease
  35. What are the different types of pneumonia?
    infectious, inflammatory, viral, fungal
  36. What are different ways in which pneumonia can be acquired?
    hematogenous spread, aerosolized particles, foreign body
  37. Auscultation of the respiratory tract always includes what?
    the trachea
  38. What determines the effective ability of respiratory gas exchange?
    arterial blood gas
  39. What diagnostic test is very useful for pleural disease, visualization of pleura/superficial parenchymal disease, may assist in collection of pleural fluid for evaluation?
    thoracic ultrasonography
  40. What is indicated in plerual disease, may guide antimicrobial therapy, auscult fluid line?
    pleurocentesis/chest tube
  41. What is considered representative sample of both right and left lung?
    transtracheal wash
  42. What samples fluid from localized region of lung, performed standing sedation in horses, GA in small animals, performed via endoscopy?
    bronchoalveolar lavage
  43. What is indicated in poor performance/noise. Allows visualization of nasal passages, pharynx, larynx, trachea, performed standing in horses, GA in small animals?
    endoscopy: URT
  44. Despite the cause, decreased oxygen delivery through alveolus into the pulmonary capillary results in one primary problem?
  45. What is necessary for oxygen exchange?
    breathing, 20% oxygen available, have ventilated alveoli, have lung capillaries, have a matching pair of alveolus/capillary, have a healthy lung
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Clin Med II
Clin Med II
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