Clin Med II
Card Set Information
Clin Med II
Clin Med II
Clin Med II
What are made in the liver by oxidation of cholesterol?
Bile acids can facilitate absorption of what?
lipid soluble vitamins (ADEK)
What is it called when excess glucose following a meal, becomes glycogen?
What is glycogen as source of glucose between meals, is short term?
What is glucose production when glycogen stores exhausted, is long term, and is important in herbivores?
What clotting factors does the liver NOT produce?
What produces endogenous cholesterol?
What is used in the formation of cholic acids, portion of bile acids, used in the production of hormones (progesterone, estrogen, testosterone)?
Cholesterol is precipitated in the stratum corneum, what does this do?
provides protection, prevents absorption of water-soluble compounds and prevents evaporation of water
What does the liver store?
glycogen, vitamins A, D, B12
What does failure to excrete bilirubin lead to?
What does failure to excrete nitrogenous wastes lead to?
hyperammoniemia which is toxic to the CNS and leads to neurologic disease.
What are the symptoms of hepatic encephalopathy?
cortical dysfunction, altered mentation, circling, yawning (horses), and head pressing
If the liver fails, this leads to phylloerythrin entering systemic blood, skin, which is activated by UV light, this leads to what?
tissue peroxidation and dermatitis, skin necrosis, photosensitization
Failure to secrete/recirculate bile acids leads to what?
poor digestion of fat, diarrhea
What are the clinical signs to hypoalbuminemia?
ventral/peripheral edema, ascites
How will failure to produce clotting factors affect the patient?
prolonged extrinsic, prolonged intrinsic, potentiates bleeding diathesis, typically end stage clinical signs in horses
What does failure to produce/store glycogen mean?
no glycogen reserves
What does failure of gluconeogenic function lead to?
inability to provide glucose from non-CHO precursors
What does failure of FA/ lipid metabolism lead to?
elevated triglycerides in blood, fatty liver syndrome.
In UA what is indicative of liver failure in small animals?
dilute urine sg, ammonium biurate crystals, bilirubinuria (NOT in cats), no urobilinogen present
What tests indicate hepatocellular injury?
ALT (dogs), SDH, AST
What are tests that show liver function?
albumin, glucose, cholesterol, BUN, bilirubin
Elevated bile acids are highly specific for liver disease, but are not specific for what?
type of liver disease
What may elevated NH3+ in blood indicate?
reduced hepatic mass, failure of liver to produce urea, shunting of blood around the liver
Does the degree of elevation of ammonia level correlate with clinical signs?
What is ultrasound guided, useful to confirm diagnosis, useful to determine prognosis?
What are methods of airway protection?
nasal passages filter large particles, bronchial epithelium provides a mucociliary escalator, alveolar macrophages, important in pulmonary disease prevention
What cells are responsible for surfactant production?
type II cells
Horses are obligate nasal breathers, to increase oxygen delivery to the alveolus, they must dilate their what?
nares, nasal passages, and nasopharynx
What is included in the extrathoracic airway?
nasal cavity, nasopharynx, larynx, trachea
What is included in the intrathoracic airway?
trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, terminal bronchioles
What can alter the amount of O2 delivered to the alveolus and pulmonary capillary?
airway disease, alveolar/pulmonary capillary disease, parenchymal disease, pleural disease, CNS disease
What involves thickening of alveolar epithelium, capillary endothelium or interstitium, affects transport of O2/CO2 for gas exchange, diffusion impairment?
What are the different types of pneumonia?
infectious, inflammatory, viral, fungal
What are different ways in which pneumonia can be acquired?
hematogenous spread, aerosolized particles, foreign body
Auscultation of the respiratory tract always includes what?
What determines the effective ability of respiratory gas exchange?
arterial blood gas
What diagnostic test is very useful for pleural disease, visualization of pleura/superficial parenchymal disease, may assist in collection of pleural fluid for evaluation?
What is indicated in plerual disease, may guide antimicrobial therapy, auscult fluid line?
What is considered representative sample of both right and left lung?
What samples fluid from localized region of lung, performed standing sedation in horses, GA in small animals, performed via endoscopy?
What is indicated in poor performance/noise. Allows visualization of nasal passages, pharynx, larynx, trachea, performed standing in horses, GA in small animals?
Despite the cause, decreased oxygen delivery through alveolus into the pulmonary capillary results in one primary problem?
What is necessary for oxygen exchange?
breathing, 20% oxygen available, have ventilated alveoli, have lung capillaries, have a matching pair of alveolus/capillary, have a healthy lung