Clin Med IV
Card Set Information
Clin Med IV
Clin Med IV
Clin Med IV
What node generates the heart rate and why?
SA node generates the heart rate because its faster
What is the first priority of the heart?
maintain normal systemic arterial pressure
What is the second priority of the heart?
maintain normal tissue blood flow
What is the third priority of the heart?
maintain normal systemic and pulmonary capillary pressures
What is the ability of the heart to change its force of contraction and therefore stroke volume, in response to changes in venous return?
What is involved in heart disease and failure?
volume overload, pressure overload pump failure, electrical abnormalities
What are clinical signs that owners see in regards to heart disease and failure?
synscope, exercise intolerance, cough, dyspnea, abdominal distention, cyanosis.
What is the number one reason owners bring their pet in for heart failure?
What are clinical signs that VETS see in regards to heart disease and failure?
pulse abnormalities, murmurs, arrhythmias, jugular pulses
What are signs of congestive heart failure (CHF)?
backwards failyre, respiratory signs, ascites
What are signs of low cardiac output - usually late onset?
forward failure, exercise intolerance, syncope, pre-renal, azotemia, cyanosis
What comes first, signs of backward heart failure or signs of forward heart failure?
backward heart failure
What is a sign of canine left sided backwards heart failure?
What is a sign of left or right sided failure?
pleural effusion in cats
What is a sign of right sided backwards heart failure?
hepatic congestion/ ascites
What is structural of pathophysiologic remodeling, involves conduction abnormalities, automaticity errors. Has genetic factors, environmental stresses, ischemia?
What is the appearance of an animal with arrhythmias?
anxious, open mouth breathing, orthopnea, elbows abducted, tachypnea, pulmonary edema, hyperpnea
What is caused by exertion or excitement, has rear limb weakness, sudden collapse, lateral recumbency, stiffening of the forelimbs and opisthotonos, micturation, vocalization, hypoxia?
What is a sign of CHF, involves mainstem bronchi compression, and pneumonitis and vascular disease, secondary to heart worm disease?
In a complete physical exam for heart failure, why pay close attention to the mucous membranes?
anemia or hypotension and poor perfusion, differential cyanosis
What diseases are involved in right sided failure of the heart?
tricuspid disease, pulmonary hypertension, caval syndrome
What diseases are involved in increased venous pressure of the jugular pulses?
right sided failure, pericardial disease, volume overload, cranial mediastinal mass
What can be auscultated on the left side of the heart?
What can be auscultated on the right side of the heart?
ventricular septal defect
What is a very soft murmur that is intermittent?
What grade is a soft murmur, can hear consistently in a quiet room?
What is a moderately intense murmur?
What is a loud murmur?
What is a loud murmur with a precordial thrill?
What is a very loud murmur, can hear with stethoscope off the body wall?
What is non-invasive, images of the heart chambers, vessels, and valves, and is a doppler - evaluate flow and pressure?
What are causes of systemic arterial hypertension?
CKD, HAC, hyperthyroidism, pheochromocytoma, diabetes mellitus, liver disease, hyperaldosteronism, intracranial lesions
What are types of oscillometric BP evaluation?
What are types of doppler BP evaluation?
jorgensen, parks, vet-dop
What is the most common type of hypertension?
secondary hypertension, concurrent with clinical disease or drug administration
What are causes of increased pulmonary blood flow or pulmonary hypertension?
congenital L to R shunt, increased CO, increased blood viscosity, increased pulmonary vascular resistance, luminal narrowing
In pulmonary hypertension, what must the TR be?
greater than 2.7 m/sec
Where does the aVR lead go?
right arm + to left arm and left leg -
Where does the aVL lead go?
left arm + to right arm and left leg -
Where does the aVF lead go?
left leg + to right and left
What are the 5 questions involved in evaluating ECG?
rate, rhythm, P/QRS and QRS/P, QRS morphology, measurements
What are functions of the kidneys?
filtration, secretion, absorption, excretion
What are functions of the ureters and urethra?
What are functions of the tubules?
reabsorption, secretion, concentration
What is any pathology affecting the kidneys?/
What is impaired function without azotemia, suggests tubular dysfunction, polyuric, and represents 66% lost?
What is decreased GFR, azotemic, 75% lost, will progress to uremia?
What are urine diagnostics?
urinalysis, urine culture, clearance evaluations, osmolaity evaluation, microalbuminuria, urine protein:creatinine ratio
What is a quantification of protein loss, accurate reflection of 24 hour testing, must have urinalysis first (hematuria, pyuria), is a diagnostic and monitoring tool?
urine protein:creatinine ratio
What is the equation of endogenous creatinine clearance?
(urine Cr) x (urine volume) / (serum Cr) x (time) x (kg) = ml/min/kg
What test should you never do on an azotemic or dehydrated dog?
water deprivation test
What can be shown with an excretory urography?
filling defects, renal pelvic dilation, hydronephrosis, hydroureter, ureteral obstruction, ectopic ureters, extravasation of contrast material