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Which of the following is NOT a probable consequence of DNA damage in a cell?
a. The cell may function normally.
b. The cell may become improved.
c. The cell may become cancerous.
d. The cell may die.
e. All of the above are probable consequences of DNA damage.
The cell may become improved.
The rules for base pairing in DNA are what?
a. A = C and G = T in amount.
b. A with C, and G with T.
c. A with G, and C with T.
d. A with T, and G with C.
e. A = G and C = T in amount.
A with T, and G with C.
In DNA, phosphate groups bond to what?
c. pyrimidine bases.
d. other phosphate groups.
Complementary base pairs are held together by what types of bonds?
a. peptide bonds.
b. hydrogen bonds.
c. disulfide bonds.
d. covalent bonds.
e. ionic bonds.
The DNA molecule could be compared to a
a. hair pin.
d. globular mass.
e. flat plate.
Which scientist[s] identified the transforming substance involved in changing rough [R] bacteria to smooth [S]?
c. Hershey and Chase
Pyrimidines have how many rings in their structure?
Based on your knowledge of Chargraff's rules, if an organism has a 11% cytosine content, then the percentage of adenine should be what?
DNA & RNA strands can ONLY be extended in the 5' to 3' direction.
What mode of DNA replication is illustrated by this picture?
Which of the following is NOT a goal of biotechnology?
A. generating economic benefits
B. efficiently producing biologically important molecules
C. improving agriculturally important food plants
D. more effectively treating disease
E.creating humans with higher intelligence levels
creating humans with higher intelligence levels
Manipulating the molecular basis of inheritance by recombinant DNA technology is called?
A. Mendelian genetics.
C. DNA fingerprinting.
D. restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP).
E.the polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
Biotechnology CANNOT be used to?
A. produce large quantities of particular human proteins.
B. produce effective and safe vaccines.
C. identify human fetuses with particular genetic diseases.
D. alter food plants to increase yield.
E. alter the intelligence levels of newborn infants.
alter the intelligence levels of newborn infants.
Which of the following results from inserting foreign DNA into an organism to produce a new gene combination?
A. recombinant DNA
B. regulatory genes
E. gene cloning
A cell or organism that contains foreign DNA inserted into its own genetic material is termed?
Goals of genetic engineering include all of the following EXCEPT?
A. to learn more about genetic inheritance.
B. to learn more about genetic diseases.
C. to learn more about bacterial inheritance.
D. to provide economic and social benefits.
E. All of the above are goals of genetic engineering.
All of the above are goals of genetic engineering.
Small accessory chromosomes found in bacteria and useful in recombinant DNA procedures are called?
A. non-circular DNA segments in bacteria.
B. small self-replicating DNA molecules in bacteria.
C. made of RNA.
D.found only in single copies within bacteria.
E.necessary in order for bacteria to reproduce.
small self-replicating DNA molecules in bacteria
DNA recombination does NOT occur between different species in nature by?
A. bacterial transformation.
B. bacteria acquiring plasmids.
C. viruses transferring DNA between host organisms.
D. sexual reproduction in animals.
E. None of the above is a correct choice.
sexual reproduction in animals.
Recombinant DNA technology?
A. will never be of economic importance.
B. only concerns changing genes in large animals.
C. is concerned with randomly creating new genes from nucleotides.
D. is dangerous and will lead to monstrosities.
E.involves combining existing genes from different organisms in new ways.
involves combining existing genes from different organisms in new ways.
If the weather in Virginia changed so dramatically that there was snow on the ground most of the year, what would occur in the local squirrel population?
If a mutation occurred that caused white fur to develop, such white squirrels would likely survive and reproduce better than gray squirrels.
Plato's view of species?
a. was consistent with the modern concept of evolution.
b. did not allow for evolutionary change.
c. included species that do not actually exist.
d. recognized that each individual in a species is unique.
e. allowed for limited evolution within species.
did not allow for evolutionary change.
Darwin and Wallace both realized that most species produce many more offspring than is necessary to maintain a constant population. What is the fate of the excess individuals?
a. They have evolved so that they cannot survive in their environment.
b. Some less favorable individuals do not survive to reproduce.
c. They evolve to take advantage of natural resources.
d. Some individuals die arbitrarily.
e. They mutate and then are able to adapt to new environments.
Some less favorable individuals do not survive to reproduce.
What determines which traits will be passed on to the next generation in the greatest frequency?
a. Mendelian genetics of the trait
b. random mutations in the trait
c. the species in which the trait occurs
d. the fitness (how well it does) of the trait to the environment
e. non-random mutations in the trait
the fitness (how well it does) of the trait to the environment
Which of the following statements is TRUE?
a. A long distance runner will produce gametes with good genes for running because their bodies are in such good physical condition.
b. Exercise can have an effect on genes.
c. What a person does during their life can have no effect on their genetic makeup other than random genetic changes from exposure to chemicals or radiation.
d. Cutting the tails off mice for 100 generations will result in a strain of mice with genes for short tails.
e. People who are healthy tend to have healthier DNA.
What a person does during their life can have no effect on their genetic makeup other than random genetic changes from exposure to chemicals or radiation.
The theory of natural selection states that?
a. all individuals live to reproduce in each generation.
b. only the largest and strongest survive.
c. random assortment of genes results in better characteristics in the following generations.
d. the best adapted individuals survive and reproduce, contributing the most genes to the next generation.
e. individuals that mutate in response to their environment will survive.
the best adapted individuals survive and reproduce, contributing the most genes to the next generation.
Natural selection on a trait can only occur if the trait is ________?
e. a new mutation
Which of these was NOT included in Darwin and Wallace's theory of natural selection?
b. high reproductive rates
c. survival of the most fit
d. traits passed from parents to offspring
Natural selection is BEST described as?
a. able to generate new traits that better suit the species.
b. increasing the perfection of a species.
c. working on existing variation of traits to favor those better suited to the organism's environment.
d. causing the death of a significant proportion of the population.
e. driving the species toward an eventual endpoint sometime in the future.
working on existing variation of traits to favor those better suited to the organism's environment.
Which of these statements indicates a problem with the theory of catastrophism?
a. Not all species have been recovered.
b. Many species have become extinct.
c. There are millions of undescribed species in the world.
d. There are no humans in early fossil records.
e. The Earth is billions of years old.
There are no humans in early fossil records.
Which of the following build(s) new strands of DNA?
Which statement about DNA replication is CORRECT?
The leading strand is one of the strands of parental DNA. The leading strand is built continuously, and the lagging strand is built in pieces.
The lagging strand is built continuously.
DNA ligase helps assemble the leading strand.
The lagging strand is one of the strands of parental DNA.
The leading strand is built continuously, and the lagging strand is built in pieces.
During DNA replication, which nucleotide will bind to an A nucleotide in the parental DNA?
The molecule that seals the gaps between the pieces of DNA in the lagging strand is
Which statement about DNA replication is FALSE?
The lagging strand is made of a series of pieces that must be joined together to make a continuous strand.
The two strands of parental DNA are separated during DNA replication.
DNA polymerase builds a new strand by adding DNA nucleotides one at a time.
Because the two strands of parental DNA run in opposite directions, the new strands must be made in different ways. DNA ligase adds nucleotides to the lagging strand.
DNA ligase adds nucleotides to the lagging strand.