Geo 5 Chapter 13
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Geo 5 Chapter 13
Weathering, Karst Landscapes, and Mass Movement
How can landscapes by physically weathered?
Root pry, expansion + contraction, frost action, and salt crystal growth.
Describe salt crystal growth/crystallization.
Water runs through rocks, then evaporates, leaving salt behind. More water runs and evaporates, and salt continues to accumulate, growing crystals that continue to enlarge.
How can landscapes be chemically weathered?
Hydration + hydrolysis, oxidation, and organic acids.
What is hydration? Hydrolysis?
In hydration, minerals hydrate, creating a wedging pressure. In hydrolysis, minerals chemically react with water, breaking down the silicates in rock.
How does oxidation work?
Iron in rock combines with oxygen and form iron oxide, or Fe
What organic acids eat away at rocks?
Plant acids, such as CaCO
What is the most important eroding force?
What does the term mass movement apply to? What are some examples?
It applies to any unit movement of a body of material propelled and controlled by gravity. Examples would be landslides and mud flows.
What is a persistent, gradual mass movement of surface soil known as?
What is more fluid: earthflows or mudflows?
What is the fastest kind of flow?
What is a landslide?
A sudden rapid movement of a cohesive mass of regolith or bedrock that is not saturated with moisture.
What do strong rocks tend to have more of?
Silica, which is powerfully bonded.
What is the tougesht igneous rock? What does it contain?
Granite, which contains quartz
What is the toughest sedimentary rock?
Sandstone, which also contains quartz.
Loose material that has been weathered from bedrock.
What is soil?
Regolith mixed with sediment.
What is spontaneous liquefaction?
A process in which clay particles that have been packed together are exposed to a high water table, which turns the material gooey.