Animal 3

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Animal 3
2012-05-19 01:48:28
Arthropods echinodermata American River college campbell reece 6th edition

echinodermata, chordates
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  1. complete metamorphosis
    • There are 4 stages: egg, larva, pupa, adult.
    • The larva goes thro various molting stages to turn into an adult.
    • The body is enclosed in the pupa.
  2. incomplete metamorphosis
    Larva turns into adults thro various molting stages without the pupa
  3. What is modular in insects
    Most insects have 3 body parts the head, the thorax and the abdomnen
  4. Eg of modular insects
  5. type of genes that affect modular body of insects at a time? and how do they affect development of appendages?
    in insects homeotic genes control how diff genes are expressed in diff segments. These give rise to 3 distinct body parts. They may affect one body part and leave the rest unchanged
  6. Name three ways that insects’ color patterns have become useful adaptations.
    • camouflage and thus disguise itself to resemble twigs, leaves, bird droppings.the hawk moth resembles the snake.
    • moths and butterflies have eye spots that resemble vertebrate eyes
  7. What type of genes control eyespots
    homeotic genes
  8. Echinoderms: Phylum is
  9. Phylum Echinodermata is for
  10. ex. of Echinoderms:
    sea anemones, sea urchins, sea star.
  11. how do Echinoderms move, fast or slow
  12. symmetry in Echinoderms
  13. HOW do we kow that echinoderms are not related to cnidarians
    the Echinoderm have bilateral symmetry which is not available in cnidarians
  14. echinodermata means
    spines on sea star, sea urchin.
  15. echinoderms have endoskeleton or exoskeleton
  16. what is the water vascular system in echinoderms
    these are tube feet that are water filled canals
  17. How do echinoderms move
    tube feet
  18. contrast skeleton of echinoderms and arthropods
    echinoderms have endoskeleton while arthropods have a exoskeleton
  19. how do sea stars feed
    it grasps its food using tube feet. the sea star then pushes the stomach inside out, and pushes the prey through the mouth the sea star then digests the soft body parts
  20. our phylum
  21. ex of chordates
    (Tunicates, Lancelets, Fish, Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds, Mammals)
  22. four features do chordate embryos (and often adults) possess?
    dorsal hollow nerve chord, post anal tail, notocord, pharyngeal slits, notochord.
  23. two chordate groups are called invertebrates? What do they lack?
    tunicates and lancelets. they lack a backbone
  24. How do adult Tunicates feed?
    they feed using pharnygeal slits as they are suspension feeders.
  25. four features do lancelets possess?
    dorsal hollow nerve chord, post anal tail, notocord, pharyngeal slits, notochord.
  26. how do tunicates feed?
    Tunicates feed by drawing water in through the inhalent siphon. The water passes through the pharynx where small particles are filtered out, it then leaves through the exhalent siphon.
  27. Why are tunicates often called sea squirts?
    they shoot out water in the form of a jet through the siphon when they are threatened
  28. it was estimated that we would have number of genes
    100,000 genes
  29. but we have genes to account to our complexity
    21,000 genes
  30. number of genes are found in fruitflies
  31. y old genes learn new tricks.”
    the body building genes are sophisticated and have sophisticated instructions that lets them turn on or off certan genes. (the DNA sequence that controls gene expression)
  32. which chordate does not have a brain
  33. chordates with a head are called
  34. what encloses the brain
  35. the skull protects the
  36. what encloses the nerve cord
  37. vertebrae encloses the
    nerve cord
  38. is vertebrate sketelon endoskeleton or exoskeleton
    endoskeleton -vertebrata
  39. heirarchy of mammals
    chordates, craniates, vertebrates, jawed vertebrates, tetrapods, amniotes
  40. What character do sharks, rays, and all the subsequent lineages share?
    the have a jaw
  41. Hagfishes and Lampreys lack
    hinged jaws
  42. Why are hagfishes described as craniates rather than vertebrates?
    no vertebral colum but have a notochord.
  43. which one called the vertebrate (hagfish/lampreys)
  44. how do hagfish feed?
    hagfish: They enter the prey through an existing hole or by making a hole using sharp toothlike sharp structures that tear flesh.
  45. which is the oldest vertebrate
  46. lampreys are (see its mouth tell you how it feeds)
  47. how do lampreys feed
    they feed by attaching to the side of the fish and then using the tongue to penetrate the skin and feed on blood and tissues.
  48. ex: Jawed vertebrates with gills and paired fins
    sharks, ray-finned fishes and lobe-finned fishes.
  49. hinge jawed vertebrates
    amphibians, skin, shark, birds, fish
  50. Chondrichthyes means are and belongs to phylum
    flexible skeleton made of cartilage, chordates
  51. Agnatha are belongs to phylum
    jawless fish, chordate
  52. Class Chondrichthyans, phylum is
  53. sharks, rays belong to phylum
  54. ex of s Chondrichthyans
    sharks, rays
  55. The largest sharks and rays both tend to feed on
  56. sharks are fast swimmers
    because of stream lined body
  57. Hunting sharks have on their heads to detect
    electrosensors, muscle contract by nearby animals
  58. what is the lateral line system in sharks help
    changes in water pressure and minor vibration generated by body of animals that arfe swimming by
  59. rays are also known as
    sting rays
  60. where do sting rays swim
    bottom of the ocean.
  61. Ray finned fishes are supported by
    thin skeletal rays
  62. how many gill slits do chondrichthyans have
    5 most of them
  63. ray finned fish have number of gills
  64. sharks have number of gills
  65. function of operculum in ray finned fish
    they allow the fish to breath without swimming by moving the operculum. the operculum houses the gills.
  66. what is swim bladder in ray finned fish? how does it help. what did it evolve from?
    a gas filled internal sac. it helps them with bouyancy. from balloon like lungs
  67. what might balloon like lungs hv helped ancestors of ray finned fish
    exchange gases in shallow water
  68. Lobe finned fishes ex
    lungfish, tetrapods
  69. coelacanth is an ex of
    Lobe finned fish
  70. Lobe finned fish have fins that are
  71. Lobe finned fishes have bones that are shaped as (spears, rods)
  72. tetrapods are (jawed/jawless) vertebrates and have(........) weight
    jaw, limbs to support their
  73. Tetrapods branch of lobe-finned fish gave rise to............ which then gave rise to ___________, ___________, and _____________.
    amphibians, mammals, birds, reptiles
  74. the main fossils for the tetrapod lineage were(Eusthenoptera, Ichthyostega, Acanthostega)
  75. Eusthenoptera lived in (water, mud)
  76. Ichthyostega live on (water /land)
    land and water
  77. Ichthyostega has the following two adaptations for living on land:

    well developed front limbs and powerful shoulders and finger like bones
    well developed back limbs and powerful shoulders and finger like bones
    welll developed front and back limbs and finger like bones
    well developed front limbs and powerful shoulders and finger like bones
  78. tiktaalik has (shoulders, neck, powerful fingers)
  79. how do Ichthyostega and tiktaalik breathe
    by help of a neck that they can lift up to get air.
  80. similarities between d Ichthyostega and d Acanthostega
    neck , 4 limbs with fingers and toes
  81. Acanthostega live on (water/land)
  82. how did Acanthostega breath
    by raising its head above water and breathe oxygen from air.
  83. Tiktaalik limbs
    were not sturdy enough to walk on land.
  84. how do Tiktaalik breath
    by raising its head above water as it has a neck it can taken in oxygen