geo final

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  1. In 1924 milutin milankovich did what?
    Calculated the combined effects of the eccentric cycle the obliquity cycle and precession cycle
  2. what are the green hous gases
    carbon dioxide, methane, cfcs, freons, nitrous oxide
  3. pleistocene
    complex records of climate changes charachterized by cycles of rapid advancesand retreats of glaciers.
  4. biomes
    major types of climate.
  5. ecotone
    overlap between two biomes
  6. nekton
    swimmers ex.. fish
  7. benthos
    mud dwellers ex clams
  8. 2 types of plankton
    • the floaters
    • zoo=animal
    • phyto=plant
  9. longest day is
    june 22nd or 23
  10. plane of eclyptic
    66 1/2 degrees
  11. major volcanic eruption
    1815 & 1816 year with no summer
  12. types of lime stone
    karst, talus
  13. types of gradiation= breaking down earth
    weathering = breaking it apart / erosion = carrying it away
  14. isostacy
    less dence rises as it erodes pushed up by dencer rock. ex... the log rises when frog jumps off
  15. where does earth system recieve most of its energy
  16. seasons are caused by
    earths angle of inclination and position in orbit
  17. the point when earth and sun are furthest apart
    aphelion ex ... afar
  18. land of the midnight sun
    north of arctic circle and south of antarctic circle
  19. the northern hemisphere is closest to sun in what month
  20. earths velocity of rotation is maximum at
    the equator
  21. form of energy connected to water is
  22. the direction of land and sea breezes
    from land by night
  23. for every 1000 feet how much does the temp change?
  24. catastrophism
    a period of creation/destruction followed by stability
  25. unformitarianism
    an ongoing process of slow change
  26. tectonic
    roughen the earths surface/ build it up
  27. crust
    part up lithosphere floats on asthensphere
  28. 3 types of rock
    IGNEOUS sedimentary metamorphic
  29. how old is earth
    4.5 billion years old
  30. plutons
    any rock formed by magma underground
  31. types of tectonic process
    warping=up and down movements/vertical , folding=sharper bending of the earths crust/horizontal, faulting=breaking of earths crust/horizontal britle
  32. strike :orientation of roCK
    intersection of the horizontal plane with the beddin g plane or surface
  33. dip:orientation of rock
    direction and angle of maximum slope of plane or surface
  34. p waves\ primary waves
    fast waves
  35. s waves/ secondary
    slow big waves cause damage/ dont go through liquid
  36. love waves
    side ways Swaves cause lots of damage
  37. earthquaks
    occur when a faul slips
  38. exfoliation.
    taking layers off of rocks
  39. weathering has two major types give examples
    physical/frost wedging"ice" ,tree wedging

    CHemical/oxidation" rust" ,solution
  40. what does fluvial and eolian mean
    • fluvial= water gradationnal processs
    • eolian= wind process
  41. alluvial fan
    fan-shaped deposit formed where a fast flowing stream flattens, slows, and spreads
  42. bajada
    debris spread along the lower slopes of mountains by descending streams
  43. deflation/erosional
    lifting of loose sediments ex.... dust storms
  44. abrasion / erosional
    natural sanding
  45. sand dunes are stable when
    they have vegatation
  46. glacier qualities
    more snow falls then melts,balance with precipitation and temperature
  47. closest star
    4.3 light years away/ alpha centuri
  48. closest galaxy
    2,900,00 light years away
  49. what is spectral shift
    VELOCITY OUTWARD FROM a single point in every direction
  50. wut is the safranov theory/ nebular
    evwery thing started as dust and gas and began to smash into each other and grow
  51. when and what is perihelion
    closest to sun and january 3rd
  52. axis of earth is tilted how much
    23 1/2 degrees from perpendicular to ecliptic
  53. weres arctic circle
    66 1/2 Degrees north
  54. summer solstice
    june 22
  55. fall equinox
    september 23
  56. winter solstice
    december 22
  57. vernal equinox
    march 21
  58. cartography
    map making
  59. negative feedback ex
    if something stops a process ex sun does not reflect as well off regual earth
  60. positice feedback
    helps continue a system process sun is reflected off ice therefore ice stays cold
  61. albedo
    how well a surface reflects
  62. coriolis effect
    deflective force that makes wind deflect in relation to earths rotation. ex ... sniper mode aim to the right and it will cure to the headshot
  63. isobar
    line on weather map to connect equal points of pressure
  64. cyclones, hurricanes, typhoons spin directions
    spin in a clockwise direction in the southern hemsiphere and anticlockwise in the northern hemisphere
  65. what degree are arid/ dessert areas
    between 20-35 degrees
  66. anemometer
  67. prevailing westerlies
    winds from subtropic to higher latitudes .20-35 degrees
  68. trade winds
    winds returning from the northeast in northern hemisphere and from the southeasr in southern hemisphere
  69. how many calories to to melt ice
    80 calories
  70. how many calories to boiling
    100 cal
  71. relative humidity
    the amount of water in the air in ratio to how much that air can actually hold
  72. relative humitidy formula
    current vapor in air / maximum possible for that temp X 100
  73. cloud types
    • low clouds = stratus,
    • middle clouds= altostratus
    • highclouds=cirrus,wispy
    • rain clouds= cumulonimbus/
    • good weather = cumulus/ puffy animal clouds
  74. chinook winds
    warm downslope wind on leeward sides of mountains
  75. evapotransperation
    the combination of transperation and evaporation
  76. tropical climate
    equator and tropical latitudes/ rainforest/ have savanna and monsoons/ very rainy/
  77. mesothermal climate
    midlatitudes/mild winters/hot summers/
  78. microthermal climate
    mid- high latitudes/ cold winters/hot-warm summers/

    subarctic areas=cool summers very cold winters
  79. polar climate
    hig latitudes and polar regions/tundras/ice caps-sheets/frozen ground/ polar marine
  80. earths layers
    inner core, outer core, lower mantle, upper mantle ,asthenosphere, crust
  81. what produces earths magnetic field
    the outer core
  82. igneous rock
    one that solidifies and crystalizes from a molten state
  83. sedimentary rock
    co,bined fragments of other rocks
  84. strike slip fault
    horizontal movement along a fault plane
  85. normal fault
    wen forces pull rocks apart
  86. scientific method process
    a question,observation,hypothesis,experiment, theory
  87. in a anticyclone the winds ____at the surface and ____ in the upper atmosphere.
    Diverge , converge
  88. hadley cell
    description of atmospheric circulation
  89. trades come from
    subtropical highs
  90. at latitude of 80 degress prevailing winds would come from wut direction
  91. gyre motions are usually
    clockwise in northern hemisphere and counter clockewise in southern
  92. rain shadow is associated with what type of precipattion
  93. squal lines form ahead of
    cold fronts
  94. tornado alley
    kansas and oklahoma
  95. tornados often trail whaty
    supercells because low pressure conditions
  96. tornados in the early part of the season will be were
    southern part of the us
  97. koppen system climates
    arid , highland, microthermal,mesothermal, tropical,polar
  98. tundra vegatation
    mossess lichen, short grasses
  99. climate type where precipatation is less then 1/2 potenttial evapo
  100. fossil fuels makee up what amopunt of energy
  101. wood and dun make up what energy use
  102. avalanch danger is greatest at
    35-45 degree
  103. one degrree of latitude
    69 miles
  104. person travellin west of internatial date line would
    turn the calender ahead one day
  105. because of the coriolous effect winds defleect what directiona
    right in northern hemisphere and left in southern hemisphere
  106. mercator project
    has straight rhumb lines and is not true to size
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geo final
igeology final
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