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  1. 2 basic laws underlie ecosystem function
    nutrients constantly cycle and recycle

    Energy moves through ecological communities in a continuous one way flow and doesnt go back to the sun
  2. trophic level
    each category of organisms

    • producers= autotrophs
    • consumers- heterotrophs
  3. primary consumers
  4. secondary consumers
  5. net primary production
    the energy stored in producers
  6. net primary production is influenced by the amount of
    • Nutrients available to producers
    • The amount of sunlight reaching them
    • The appropriate amouts of water and temperature
  7. detritus feeders
    live on dead organic matter, including the bodies of other organisms, fallen leaves and fruit, and wastes (vulchures)
  8. biomass
    the weight of living material at each trophic level
  9. Nutrient cycles
    pathways nutrients follow between communities and the nonliving portions of ecosystems.

    nitrogen, carbon, phosphorous, hydrolic cycles
  10. The carbon cycle
    movement of carbon from its major short term reservoirs through producers, into the bodies of consumers and detritus feeders, and then backto its reservoirs

    Get it back form respiration, photosynthesis, and decomposition

    Interfering with this cycle is warming the earth's climate
  11. the nitrogen cycle
    nitrogen moves from nitrogen gas in the atmosphere (78? of air in atmosphere)

    to reservoirs of ammonia and nitrate in the soil and water, through producers and into consumers and detritus feeders, and then back again to its reservoirs
  12. nitrogen is a crucial compoment of
    protients, many vitamins, nucleotides (ATP) and nucleic acids
  13. nitrogen fixation
    • bacteria convert the ammonia into nitrate that plants can directly use
    • Others live in symbiotic associations with plants called legumes, which include alfalfa, soybeans, clover, and peas
  14. the phosphorus cycle
    its major reservoir in rock bound to oxygen as phosphate

    • ATP and NADP, nucleic acids, and major component of vertebrate teeth and bones
    • Main source- rocks
    • Replenished from geological uplift- rocks rising- glaciers melting, washing up from ocean, ect
  15. greenhouse gasses
    • CO2, methane, nitrous oxide
    • trap the heat in the atmosphere
  16. global warming process
    • 1. sunlight energy enters the atmosphere
    • 2. some energy is reflected back into space
    • 3. most sunlight strikes the Earth's surface and is converted into heat
    • 4. Heat is radiated back into atmosphere
    • 5. Most heat is radiated back into space
    • 6. Some atmospheric heat is retained by greenhouse gases
  17. Effects of global warming
    • 1. Rising sea levels will flood many coastal cities and wetlands and may increase hurricane intensity.
    • 2. More extreme weather patterns
    • 3.Will alter air and water currents- changing precipitation patterns
    • 4. Forests may suffer loss of species or be repleaced by grasslands
    • 5. Coral reefs may decline due to warming waters
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