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what is the most common interventional procedure?
how does balloon angioplasy work?
it employs a balloon catheter to enlarge a vessel
what is a common antiplatelet therapy for balloon angioplasty?
300 mg aspirin four times a day
balloon angioplasty uses an introducer sheath to do what?
what is a common diameter size for a balloon catheter used for coronary vessels?
what is an average balloon inflation time?
20 to 40 secs
what is crimping?
comlication associated with stents
what is thrombolysis?
a procedure in which the clot is decomposed or lysed
what is used during thrombolysis?
what is useful to perform before a thrombolysis?
a coagulation profile
what is embolization?
useful in decreasing or stopping blood flow in a vessel
what is a gelfoam?
a temporary embolization material
list three types of retrieval devices
- loop basket
- balloon-tip retrieval catheter
- hook-shaped catheter
- loop snare
what is indicated for variceal bleeding caused by portal hypertension?
what is an atherectomy?
a procedure by which plaque is cut away from the vessel wall
can a guide wire or a guiding catheter be used during an atherectomy?
what is PTCA?
percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty
what is the success rate and patency percentage of a coronary angioplasty?
- 2-5 years success rate
- 70-75% patency
give one indication for the use of an intravascular stent
acute blockage of a coronary artery causes what
what fibrous tissue is formed to help close the ductus arteriosus at birth?
what are the two main branches of the left pulmonary artery?
ascending and descending arteries
what type of pressure is responsible for the flow of blood from the capillaries to the veins?
what type of puncture is performed in cases of suspected pulmonary embolization?
upper extremity puncture
what type of technique is used to facilitate catheter placement during a percutatneous upper extremity puncture?
where should the injection be made if hypertension is present in the main pulmonary artery?
List the complications associated with pulmonary angiography that may occur in the heart
- premature ventricular contractions
- perforation of the heart
- twisted catheter in the heart
- severe bradycardia
list the pathologies that may be demonstrated on a pulmonary angiography
- pulmonary stenosis
- pulmonary vascular changes
- patent ductus arteriosus
what type of access is used for nonvascular interventions that is usually employed for large pathologies that are not located in a critical structure
trocar percutatneous access
where is the needle entry for a nephrostomy?
2-3 cm below the 10th rib
what are the two reasons for the use of contrast medium during a nephrostomy procedure?
- indentifies anatomy
- distends the calyx
list the complications that may occur with a nephrostomy
- urine extravasation
- perirenal bleeding
- catheter dislodgement
- catheter obstruction
list some contraindications for a percutaneous drainage
- when a major organ, blood vessel, or plural space is transgressed
- coagulation deficiency
- intrahepatic echinocococcal cyst
what is a gram's stain?
used to determine the need to administer antibiotics when performing a percutaneous abscess drainage via needle aspiration
what is the primary reason for performing a biopsy
to determine if a mass is malignant or benign
what is the most common reason for gastric tube placement
for long-term feeding, necessitated by neurologic disorders
what is an example of a contraindication for a gastrostomy?
difficulty ingesting food
what is a method used to identify the colon for gastrostomy?
insufflation of air in the stomach