Dmi 54 Final Review questions

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Dmi 54 Final Review questions
2012-05-07 03:05:58
angioplasty bradycardia cardiac cath

ch 23, 28-30
Show Answers:

  1. what is the most common interventional procedure?
    balloon angioplasty
  2. how does balloon angioplasy work?
    it employs a balloon catheter to enlarge a vessel
  3. what is a common antiplatelet therapy for balloon angioplasty?
    300 mg aspirin four times a day
  4. balloon angioplasty uses an introducer sheath to do what?
    exchange catheters
  5. what is a common diameter size for a balloon catheter used for coronary vessels?
  6. what is an average balloon inflation time?
    20 to 40 secs
  7. what is crimping?
    comlication associated with stents
  8. what is thrombolysis?
    a procedure in which the clot is decomposed or lysed
  9. what is used during thrombolysis?
  10. what is useful to perform before a thrombolysis?
    a coagulation profile
  11. what is embolization?
    useful in decreasing or stopping blood flow in a vessel
  12. what is a gelfoam?
    a temporary embolization material
  13. list three types of retrieval devices
    • loop basket
    • balloon-tip retrieval catheter
    • hook-shaped catheter
    • loop snare
  14. what is indicated for variceal bleeding caused by portal hypertension?
  15. what is an atherectomy?
    a procedure by which plaque is cut away from the vessel wall
  16. can a guide wire or a guiding catheter be used during an atherectomy?
  17. what is PTCA?
    percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty
  18. what is the success rate and patency percentage of a coronary angioplasty?
    • 2-5 years success rate
    • 70-75% patency
  19. give one indication for the use of an intravascular stent
    uncontrolled dissection
  20. acute blockage of a coronary artery causes what
    myocardial infarction
  21. what fibrous tissue is formed to help close the ductus arteriosus at birth?
    ligamentum arteriosum
  22. what are the two main branches of the left pulmonary artery?
    ascending and descending arteries
  23. what type of pressure is responsible for the flow of blood from the capillaries to the veins?
    alveolar pressure
  24. what type of puncture is performed in cases of suspected pulmonary embolization?
    upper extremity puncture
  25. what type of technique is used to facilitate catheter placement during a percutatneous upper extremity puncture?
    valsalva technique
  26. where should the injection be made if hypertension is present in the main pulmonary artery?
    left atrium
  27. List the complications associated with pulmonary angiography that may occur in the heart
    • premature ventricular contractions
    • perforation of the heart
    • arrhythmia
    • twisted catheter in the heart
    • severe bradycardia
  28. list the pathologies that may be demonstrated on a pulmonary angiography
    • P.E.
    • pulmonary stenosis
    • pulmonary vascular changes
    • coarctation
    • patent ductus arteriosus
    • tumors
  29. what type of access is used for nonvascular interventions that is usually employed for large pathologies that are not located in a critical structure
    trocar percutatneous access
  30. where is the needle entry for a nephrostomy?
    2-3 cm below the 10th rib
  31. what are the two reasons for the use of contrast medium during a nephrostomy procedure?
    • indentifies anatomy
    • distends the calyx
  32. list the complications that may occur with a nephrostomy
    • hematuria
    • infection
    • hemorrhage
    • peritonitis
    • pneumothorax
    • urine extravasation
    • perirenal bleeding
    • catheter dislodgement
    • catheter obstruction
  33. list some contraindications for a percutaneous drainage
    • when a major organ, blood vessel, or plural space is transgressed
    • coagulation deficiency
    • intrahepatic echinocococcal cyst
  34. what is a gram's stain?
    used to determine the need to administer antibiotics when performing a percutaneous abscess drainage via needle aspiration
  35. what is the primary reason for performing a biopsy
    to determine if a mass is malignant or benign
  36. what is the most common reason for gastric tube placement
    for long-term feeding, necessitated by neurologic disorders
  37. what is an example of a contraindication for a gastrostomy?
    difficulty ingesting food
  38. what is a method used to identify the colon for gastrostomy?
    insufflation of air in the stomach