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ability to keep track of where memories come from.
process of source monitoring
take source and content information and integrate them into a common memory trace. active search of memory for the source information and retrieve it.
where is source monitoring accomplished?
- integration of info: hippocampus.
- search for source info: frontal lobes.
- retrieval of info: temporal lobes.
types of source information
- perceptual detail.
- contetual information.
- semantic detail and/or affective information.
- cognitive operations.
- perceptual information that is encoded into the memory, such as what a person was looking at or eharing wehn the memory was created.
- present more about events actually experienced.
context in which a memory was acquired.
people remember source information better when the source is consistent with expectation than if a memory is from an unexpected source.
semantic detail and/or affective information
how much a person was mentally and emotionally involved in the events.
- mental processes done are: encoding, including retrieving information from memory, manipulating it, trying to generate a mental image, and so on.
- (only things thought about).
types of source monitoring
- internal source monitoring.
- exeternal source monitoring.
- reality monitoring.
internal source monitoring
- distinguishing between actions a person either thought about or actually did.
- perceptual detail and context info especially handy.
external source monitoring
- distinguishes between two external sources.
- who told ou this? where did you read this?
- perceptual detial and context info are important too.
distinguishing among memories of events that actually happened and those that were only imagined.
source monitoring errors
- a person's understanding of the world and what actually happened are at odds.
- source misattributions can be biased to make ourselves look good.
source information that can be used for retrieval and help a person remember.
involves determinig the source of a retrieved memory.
- unintentional and unconscious plagiarism.
- due to reality monitoring error.
related to how frequently something has been encountered.
false fame effect
tendency to think that someone is facmous or more famous than he or she really is because his or her name is familiar.
leads people to prefer things that are more familiar.
source memory can also be affected by social factor, social stereotypes.
people get propaganda from a source of either high or low credibility. if the source has low credibility then people initially discount it. however, after a few days, weeks, or months, people still remember the information but now consider it more credible than before. what previously seemed unreasonable has, with the simple passage of time, become reasonable.
wishful thinking bias
tendency to misremember desirable information as having come from reliable sources, and undesirable information as having come from unreliable sources.
- the when and the how people "remember" things that never happened.
- especially important when memories are the only source of information; example, eyewitness testimony.
- people listen to a list of words.
- try to recall as many words as possible.
- recall only a part.
- often misremember words that were not on the list.
false memories from integration
- another way people misremember is when items that were presented at different times are integrated into a single memory trace.
- people may misremember different pieces of information as being part of the same event if they "seem" like they should go together.
- occurs when people overtly question whether someone remembers something.
- observable for autobiographical memories.
technique that makes the creation of implanted false memories more likely is visualization or imagination, which also increases the confidence that people feel about them.
people are willing to say that they "remember" events that were only imagined if other people aso claim they saw them.
- false memories are more likely if a set of words is emotionally negative, but less likely if it's emotioanlly positive.
- negative emotional content encourages more gist-based processing, causing people to be more willing to remember something that is generally consistent with the actual information, producing a false memory.
altered state of consciousness in which a person is more willing to accept and follow the suggestions of the hypnotist.
- when we talk about things we've seen, our memories are changed by this verbalization.
- when we describe an event, we create a verbal memory of our description. because verbal information differs from visual inforamtion, our memory for what we said alters our memory for what we saw.
the increasing in reporting something as remembered (either accurately or not) when it is slowly revealed over time rather than revealed all at once.
ways that memory can influence legal matters
- eyewitness memory.
- confidence eyewitnesses have in their memories.
- development of a cognitive interview used to gather information in a way to get the most out of memory.
- ability to identify a perpetrator from a lineup.
- consider how memory processes influence the effectiveness of juries.
things that can affect memory: wording of a question, influence of misleading information, witness's emotional state, and aspects of the event that may influence later memory.
- people reconstruct their memories of an event baed on the questions they are asked.
- examples: "hit vs smashed"; "a vs the".
misleading postevent information
- ability to alter memory by giving misleading information afterward, whether intentionally or not.
- these memory distortions come from hearing other people describe the event, with memory being distorted in the direction of what other people report.
methods: misleading postevent information
- consistent condition: yield sign (question is consistent with the video).
- misleading condition: stop sign (this question refers to an object that was not in the scene).
- neutral condition: intersection.
theories: misleading postevent information
- memory replacement theory: misleading information replaces or overwrites the original memory, which is permanently lost.
- memory coexistence theory (blocking theory): original and misleading information coexist in memory. the misleading information is more recent, it obscures the original memory.
- source monitoring theory: source monitoring problem.
- at high levels of arousal, memory is wrose. attention dirng encoding is focused on a few smaller, critical details.
- yerkes-dodson law: arousal is a continuum, memory performance being an inverted-U-shaped function. when arousal is low, a person does not encode information into memory very well. as arousal increases, performance increases as well, up to a point. beyond that point, a person is overaroused, and memory worsens.
- easterbrook hypothesis: at higher levels of emotional intensity, people restrict their attention to a narrower range of details. attention is more focused.
- weapon focus: increase in memory for a wepon along with a decline in memory for other details.
john dean's memory
- coverup of the watergate break-in during President Nixon's administration.
- self-centered bias.
although eyewitness confidence is often used as an indicator of accuracy, the real relationship between them is imperfect. moreover, this relationship is worsened by a nmber of factors, including reinforcing feedback, even from someone who did not know what really happened. eyewitness confidence can also be affected by repeated attempts to remember and external encouragement to try to remember accurately.
- technique uses basic memory principles to maximize the amount of correct information and minimize the amount of incorrect information from a witness.
- focuses on 5 retrieval processes.
retrieval processes for cognitive interview
- encoding specificity and mood-dependent learning: attempt to reinstate the external and internal contexts of the event.
- witnesses are encouraged to report whatever they can, however partial or insignifcant it may seem to them at the time.
- reporting an event in a variety of orders.
- report information from different perspectives.
- questioners are discouraged rom interrupting a witness's reporte, when possible.
eye witness identification
- identify people involve.
- 2 undesirable outcomes: failing to identify the perpetrator, misidentifying an innocent person as the perpetrator.
having seen a face previously in a set of mugshots can mistakenly lead people to think that was the face of the perpetrator.
- because people are prone to use relative judgments, it is better to use sequential lineups rather than simultaneous ones. this forces people to compare each person with their memory of the perpetrator rathern than with one another.
- in addition, lineup accuracy is increased if people are reminded that they can say "not present" to the lineup.
when a person mistakenly identifies an innocent bystander as the perpetrator.
- decisions are influenced by the order in which information was encountered.
- serial poistion curve influence in this real world setting.efectiveness vary at suppressing, or forgetting, inadmissible evidence.
- decisions can be biased in the direction of the inappropriate information due to nconscious memory processes.
- collective deliberation process can mitigate the distorting effects of memory.
awareness of one's own memory.
memory traces that people make judgments about.
questions or prompts.
types of information used to make judgments
- target-based sources and cue-based sources.
- target-based sources: information from the memory trace about which judgment is made, including information retrieved from memory, as well as the ease with which it is recovered.
- cue-based sources: information gleaned from a memory cue, such as a question.
cue familiarity hypothesis
metameory judgments are based on the familiarity of the information in a cue. the more familiar it is, the more likely people will judge that the knowledge is in memory.
- people infer what is in memory based on information at hand, including partial retrievals.
- information activated when a judgement is made
- intensity of activated memory traces, including the ease of access, how specific the info is, so on.
- metamemory judgments are influenced by the number of memory trace competitors involved in retrieval.
- metamemory judgments are greater with less competition.
judgments of learning
estimates people make for how well they have learned something.
- states that JOLs are poor because people have little conscious awareness of their own mental processes.
- we lack ability to assess our own learning.
- states that JOLs are poor because people are assessing whether they can retrieve information.
- when JOLSs are made soon after the information was encountered, that knowledge is still in WM. people think hte information is better learned that it actually is.
- extrinsic: concern aspects of the learning situation, massed vs distributed practice, or presentation times.
- intrinsic: aspects of the material being learned, such as the perceived ease of learning each item.
- mnemonic: memory-based sources of information, such as assessments of how a person has doen on previous judgments.
allocationof study time
spend most of your time on new/unknown things.
- people spending most of their effort/time on things that are far from being learned.
- as a result, there is little gain of new knowledge.
feeling of knowing
you don't know the answer, but you feel that it is somewhere in memory, and if you heard or saw it, you would be able to identify it.
when people fail to recall information but feel that they are about to retrieve it.
incomplete activation view
- when the search range has not been sufficiently narrowed.
- too many possibilities so the person cannot retrieve the desired word.
occur when related but inappropriate competitors are activated to a greater degree and block access to the appropriate information.
knowing that you don't know
when there 's no information in memory, people can quickly say that they do not know something.
- remember: associated with conscious recollection.
- know: unconscious feelings of familiarity.
people tend to think of events as being more deterministic after the fact.
- people evaluate information in some way at stage 1.
- at stage 2 people are given feedback about the information encountered at stage 1.
- finally, in stage 3, people indicate their memory for what they knew at stage 1.
- compared to ppl who got no feedback at stage 2, metamemory reports of prior knowledge are biased toward the info learned during stage 2.
- after stage 2, ppl have a hard time remembering what it was like not knowing something as if they knew it all along.
ppl were more accurate at remembering their previous memory successes but were less accurate at remembering their previous instances of forgetting.
ppl have a memory bias to think that things that are consistent with their own beliefs have more positive and fewer negative characteristics than they actually do.
used to remember to do things in the future.
- memory for things learned in the past.
- event-based: generally easier and may improve with the passage of time.
- time-based: harder and is more susceptible to source monitoring errors.
people can exert conscious control over their memories by deliberatey removing traces that are deemed to be irrelevant.
- mental or physical devices used to help people remember.
- method of loci, rhyming mnemonic, acronyms, acrostics, etc.
method of loci
a person has a set of well-known locations.
cases of people with exceptional memories.
ability to remember(use) mental images in a way that resembles perceptually viewing an image.
testing memory: infancy
- uses activity that the infant already does.
- behavior changes as a function of whether something is remembered or not.
- use a gaze duration/direction.
- infants spend a lot of time looking around the world in a constant effort to understand it.
- things that are looked at less are recognized, and thus are in memory.
- rate of sucking changes s function of whether the infnt is seeing or hering something old (in memory) or new.
- measured using high-tech pacifiers that record the sucking rate.
- old: suck at a slower rate.
- new: suck faster.
- infants lay on their backs in a crib.
- one end of a ribbon is tied to the baby's ankle, the other end is attached to a mobile.
- baby kicks, mobile moves.
- kicking-mobile movement relationship is picked up and kicking time increases.
- experimenter does some task.
- after a delay, observed whether the child also does the task.
- evidence of recall.
- memory recall begins at 9 months and becomes stable at 2.
- thalamus and medial temporal structures: at birth.
- frontal lobes: control the flow of processing of memory aren't funtional till the age of 1.
ability to learn new motor skills, associate the sights and sounds of their parents with care and comfort and acquire a large array of unconscious influences on behavior.
- conjugate reinforcement paradigm.
- 3-month-old infants remember to kick 5 days later.
- kikcin becomes context dependent.
- ability to explicitly remember information over long periods increases in accuracy and duration as the infant matures.
- advanced enough to abstract away from the original information, although early schemas are grounded in perceptual experience.
- infants create and use categories (3-4mo).
- shor-term working memory: improves. memory span becomes larger. increased speech rate. ability to remember a set of words is a function of the person's knowledge base. processing speed increases.
- episodic memory retrieval: increases due to the increase in the degree of information structure and organization.
- semantic memory: more complex. shcemas and scripts are developed.
- better inhibition of irrelevant information.
- effective eyewitnesses/also prone to distortion from misleading information.
- awareness of limits and abilities of their own memories.
- age-related neurlogical change: universal. rate or speed of neural firing slows down in older adults.
- speed theories: changes in processing speed. forgetting will occur for some of the information in the stream of thought.
- frontal lobes: less effective; reduced ability to control the flow of information in memory.
- short-term/working memory: reduced capacity.
- episodic memory: most noticeable decay. decline in the ability to recall and recognize information.
- autobiographical memory: dominated by salient landmark events, self-relevant information, and emotionally positive events.
- memory and reality: several declines. less effective at source monitoring. high in source monitoring errors. less able to integrate different types of source information.
- metamemory tasks: prospective memory is decreased.
things that stay the same with old age
- semantic memory.
- organization of episodic information.
- retention of infromation at higher levels of thought.
- shift in role that emotions play which then has consequences for memory and aging.
- older adults have greater contro over some aspects of emotional processing that younger adults.
catastrophic oss of memories or memory abilities beyond what is expected with normal forgetting, along with otherswise normal intelligence and attention span.
long-term memory amnesia
result of organic disturbance: retrograde and anterograde.
loss of long-term memories prior to a traumatic incident, backward in time.
loss of the ability to store new long-term memories, forward in time.
- loss in the ability to access long-term memories that were previously available.
- caused by any trauma to the brain that disrupts the consolidation of long-term memories.
- graded loss of memory in which more recent memories are more easily disrupted. older memories, in contrast, are more firmly established and difficult to disrupt.
- reflects the consolidation of memories in the nervous system.
- the older a memory is, the more consolidated it is and the less susceptible it is to disruption.
characteristics of retrograde amnesia
- often, many of the memories initially lost are recovered, although those near the traumatic event may be lost forever.
- retrograde amnesia can be deliberately induced through electrical shocks. (ECS & ECT)
- inability to store new memories after an incident.
- much more devastating condition.
- ppl lose ability to fully benefit from their experiences, become frozen in time.
- due to damage of medial temporal lobes and hippocampus.
diencephalic anterograde amnesia
- symptom of Korsakoff's syndrome (chronic and severe alcoholics).
- includes: thalamus, hypothalamus, mammillary bodies.
general anterograde amnesia
- part of memory most affected: conscious, declarative memory (episodic or autobiographical as well as semantic knowledge).
- short-term memory is intact but people tend to forget things faster. long-term memory is affected.
living with anterograde amnesia
- people shoudl be under surveillance for their own safety.
- some, if it's not a sever form of anterograde amnesia, can have some level of independence.
transient global amnesia (TGA)
- rare form of amnesia.
- cause is uncertain.
- duration is brief.
- affects a broad range of memories.
- odd loss of major periods of a person's life that can be triggered by mild to moderate stress during a person's early retirement years.
short-term memory amnesia
- raher than damaging short-term meory as a whole, different components of working memory appear to be compromised.
- deemphasizes the idea that long-term memory learning requires a fully functioning short-term memory.
wehn a person may be so psychologically disturbed by something that it causes them to forget on a massive scale.
this view suggests that tehera are experiences people have that are traumatic or threatening to the point of potentially damaging the ability to function adequately in the world. to protect people from these damaging memories, a part of the mind actively represses them to keep them from entereing consciousness.
- psychogenic amnesia in which a person is unable to remember segments of his or her life. typically, the forgotten knowledge is either traumatic itself or is associated with a traumatic event.
- systematized amnesia: ppl are amnesic for information related to a traumatic event, regardless of when or where it occured.
- localized amnesia: a person has trouble remembering events within a block of time, such as a period of hours or weeks.
- generalized amnesia: nearly all of a person's life is forgotten.
- memory is disrupted to the point that a person forgets fundamental aspects of his or her identity, who he or she is, where he or she lives, what he or she does for a living.
- fugue and flight: change in both identity and location.
- memory fugue: loss of memories, but the core identity is intact.
- regresesion fugue: regression to an earlier safer state of life. inability to remember events after that period.
dissociative identity disorder
a person acts as if he or she has many separate identities, each with its own autobiographical history.
- condition in which there are serious impariments in many aspects of thinking, only one of which is memory, but without an impairment of consciousness.
- memory problems: include decline in the ability to learn new information and a loss of prior memories.
most common disease that affects memory, results in memory being systematicaly destroyed as drastic changes are made to brain structure.
- parkinson's: damage to or loss of neurons in the basal ganglia and the substantia nigra. dsiruption in dopamine rprocessing. problems in coordinating movements, tremors, pill rolling, facial expression, difficulty in walking.
- huntington's: uncontrolled muscle spas, resultin in jerky movements.
- multiple sclerosis: involves demyelinization of various neurons. muscle control problems.
- subcortical diseases that can each have a memory loss component but are not as devastating to memory as alzheimer's.
- each condition affects memory depending on the brain structures that are damaged.
memory problems with other pathologies
- confabulation: damage to frontal lobes. central executive of working memory. brain-damaged patients report things that are clearly not based on reality but are false memories generated by the patient.
- squizophrenia: serious mental disorders in which a person becomes detached from reality through a disruption in patterns of thinking and perception. imbalance of neurotransmitters, such as dopamine.
- depression:state that, if it persists for a long time, creates memory problems. ppl find it difficult to encode new information, especially positive information. decline in motivation that affects the amount of information produced on a free recall test and worsen performance on forced recall and recognition tests.
- cotard delusion: belief that one is dead or that the world does not exist.
- anxiety and stress: ppl exert a great deal of effort trying to resolve memory problems.
loss of memory of specific knowledge
- semanti amnesia: deficit in the ability to retrieve samantic knowledge (temporal lobes).
- anomia: ppl with difficulty retrieving word meanings, even for common words, despite otherwise normal language.
- apraxia: difficulty not only with the names of objects but also with how these objects are used.
- aphasia: ppl may lose the ability to remember how to use language.
- Broca (producing language) Wernicke (understanding language).
- amusia: ppl have trouble either comprehending or producing music.
- prospagnosia: failur eto recognize faces.
drugs and alcohol
- drugs: benzodiazepines depressants GABA-related processes. (anterograde amnesia)
- alcohol: blackouts. decline in prospective memory, producing overconfidence in metamemory judgments.
- ppl have inappropriate and involuntary sensory experiences in addition to normal ones.
- decreased ability to sufficiently suppress inappropriate feedback loops in perception or because of an incomplete pruning of cortical connections during development.