Patho & Pharmo wk 6 Neoplasms

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Patho & Pharmo wk 6 Neoplasms
2012-06-01 02:44:57

Neoplasms & treatments
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  1. Explain a benign neoplasm?
    Localised encapsulated neoplasm that is generally well differentiated and does not spread
  2. What is cancer?
    A malignant neoplasm
  3. Explain a Malignant neoplasm
    Poorly differentiated. Non capsulated neoplasm. It can spread locally or metataise
  4. Metastasis
    Spread of neoplasticism cells via blood or lymphatic to distant sites
  5. What forms of treatments are there for cancer
    • Surgery
    • Radiotherapy
    • Drug Therapy
  6. When is surgery appropriate?
    • This treatment is most commonly used in solid tumours.
    • Surgery will remove the primary tumour and some secondaries (lymph-nodes)
  7. Can these types of treatments be used in conjunction with each other?
  8. When is drug therapy the only real choice?
    If the cancer is disseminated
  9. Name the 4 classes of Drug therapies
    • Cytotoxic
    • Hormones and Hormone Antagonists
    • Biological Response Modifiers
    • Targeted drugs
  10. What do Cytotoxic Agents do?
    Kill the cells directly
  11. What are the principles of cancer chemotherapy?
    • Cell proliferation and chemotherapy
    • Limitations to successful chemotherapy
    • Strategies for improving the impact of chemotherapy
    • Common chemotherapeutic toxicities
    • Fututre directions
  12. Why do cytotoxic drugs target proliferating cells?
    Because they disrupt the DNA synthesis or mitosis
  13. Name the 5 limitations to successful chemotherapy and why?
    • Dosgage rate as Cytotoxic agents are Non-selective.
    • Early detection of cancer is difficult until it has spread from point of origin.
    • It is impossible to kill all cancer cells as every malignant cell must be killed to achieve a cure. Due to the damage to the hosts immune system this compromises the individual.
    • Size of the tumour, if used in conjunction with surgery the responsiveness is increased. Also the vascular supply plays an important part.
    • Drug resistance as the cancer cells difer due to ongoing mutation.
  14. Why would intermittent dosing be a possible strategy?
    Normal cells recover quicker than cancer cells so therefore the destruction of the cancer without killing the host.
  15. Name some common chemotherapeutic toxicities?
    • Bone Marrow Suppression -Reduced RBC - Anaemia
    • Reduced Platelets - Thrombocytopenia. Reduced Neutrophils - Neitropenia
    • G.I.T. Injury - Stomatitis. Nausea & Vomiting.
    • Alopecia.
    • Reproductive toxicity
    • Carcinogenesis