Legal Terminology

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Author:
SugaBear
ID:
152658
Filename:
Legal Terminology
Updated:
2012-05-07 17:24:09
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Legal law Terminology voc
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Description:
Legal Terminology Chapter 2. Criminal Trial Procedure.
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  1. Action
    Lawsuit or court proceeding.
  2. Arraignment
    The act of calling a prisoner before the court to answer an indictment or information.
  3. Arrest
    To deprive a person of his or her liberty.
  4. Arrest Warrant
    A written order of the court commanding law enforcement officers to arrest a person and bring him or her before the court.
  5. Bail
    Money or property that is left with the court to assure that the person will return to stand trial.
  6. Beyond A Reasonable Doubt
    The fact finder is fully persuaded that the accused has committed the crime.
  7. Bifurcated Trial
    A trial that is divided into two parts, providing separate hearings for different issues in the same lawsuit.
  8. Citation
    A written order by a judge (or a police officer) commanding a person to appear in court for a particular purpose.
  9. commutation of sentence
    the changing of a sentence to one that is less severe
  10. concurrent sentences
    two or more sentences imposed on a defendant to be served at the same time
  11. consecutive sentences
    two or more sentences imposed on a defendant to be served one after the other. Also called cumulative sentences
  12. convict
    a person found guilty of a crime.
  13. crime
    a wrong against society; an offense againse the public at large
  14. criminal complaint
    a written statement of the essential facts making up an offense charged in a criminal action
  15. cumulative sentences
    two of more sentences imposed on a defendant to be served one after the other. Also called consecutive sentences
  16. defendant
    a person against whom a legal action is brought
  17. extradition
    permits the return of fugitives to the state where they are accused of having committed a crime
  18. fact finder
    the jury in a jury trial or the judge in a nonjury trial
  19. grand jury
    a jury consisting of not more the 23 people who listen to evidence and decide whether or not to charge someone with the commission of a crime
  20. guilty
    having committed a crime
  21. inadmissible
    cannot be received
  22. indictment
    a formal written charge of a crime made by a grand jury
  23. information
    a formal written charge of a crime made by a public official rather than a grand jury
  24. intent
    which is the necessary mental state that precedes the criminal act
  25. malefactor
    a person found guilty of a crime
  26. mandatory sentence
    a fixed sentence that must be imposed with no room for discretion
  27. minimum sentence
    the smallest amount of time that a prisoner must serve before being released or placed on parole
  28. Miranda warnings
    the constitutional right given to people who are arrested to be told before being questioned that they have the right to remain silent, that any statements made by them may be used against them, that they have a right to have a lawyer present, and that a lawyer will be probided without cost if they cannot afford one.
  29. nolo contendere
    a plea in which the defendant neither admits nor denies the charges
  30. pardon
    a setting aside of punishment altogether by a government official
  31. parole
    a conditional release from prison allowing the person to serve the remainder of a sentence outside of prison under specific terms.
  32. parole board
    a group of people authorized to grant parole. Also called parole commission
  33. parole commission
    a group of people authorized to grant parole. Also called parole board
  34. parolee
    a person placed on parole
  35. personal recognizance
    a personal obligation by a person to return to stand trial
  36. plaintiff
    a person who brings a legal action against another
  37. plea bargaining
    the working out of a mutually satisfactory disposition of a case by the prosecution and the defense
  38. preliminary hearing
    a hearing before a judge to determine whether there is sufficient evidence to believe that the person has committed a crime. Also called probable cause hearing
  39. probable cause
    reasonable grounds for belief that an offense has been committed
  40. probable cause hearing
    a hearing before a judge to determine whether there is sufficient evidence to believe that the person has committed a crime. Also called preliminary hearing
  41. prosecute
    to proceed against a person criminally
  42. prosecution
    a criminal action. The party by whom criminal proceedings are started or conducted; the state
  43. reasonable doubt
    doubt based on reason
  44. rendition
    the return of fugitives to the state where they are accused of having committed a crime by the governor of the state to which they have fled.
  45. rules of criminal procedure
    regulations that govern the proceedings in criminal cases
  46. seizures
    evidence of criminality must be based on a valid search warrant or on a permissible exception.
  47. sentence
    the judgment of the court imposing punishment when the defendant is found guilty in a criminal case
  48. severance of actions
    the separation of lawsuits or prosecutions involving multiple parties into separate, independent cases, resulting in separate, final judgments
  49. suspended sentence
    a sentence that is given formally but not actually served
  50. victim's impact statement
    a statement to the court, at the time of sentencing. relative to the impact that the crime had on the victim or the victim's family

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