BIo Sat2 ch.11

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Krudge
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152665
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BIo Sat2 ch.11
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2012-05-07 21:23:13
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BIo Sat2 11
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microorganisms
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  1. Absorbitive feeders
    • These organisms secrete hyrdolytic enzymes to digest food outside there body.
    • fungi are and example of absorbitive feeders.
  2. Asexual spores
    A spore drops of somewhere and it can grow on its own.
  3. Sexual spores
    These spores combine from each organism, and they sprout up into new fungi.
  4. Vegatative growth
    A portion of the fungus breaks off and it forms a new fungus.
  5. Budding
    A new fungus grows off the side of the old one.
  6. peptidoglycan
    The cell walls of bacteria are made of this protein sugar.
  7. Binary fission
    The bacteria replicates its single chromosome and then splits in half somewhat evenly.
  8. Resistant
    • In the example of a bacteria, it is not killable by an antibiotic it is resistant to.
    • Ex. ampr
  9. Sensitive
    • Can be killed by something.
    • Ex. tets
  10. Transformation (bacteria)
    Bacteria pick up DNA from its outside environment.
  11. Conjugation (bacteria)
    A bacteria replicates and also donates some of its DNA through a pilus.
  12. Transduction (bacteria)
    A virus carries DNA from one bacterium to another.
  13. Obligate aerobes
    They can function only when there is oxygen.
  14. Obligate anaerobes
    They can function only when there insin't oxygen.
  15. Facultative anaerobes
    They can survive weather there is oxygen available or not.
  16. Auxotroph
    • Requires auxillary nutrition.
    • Labeled by the amino acid they cannot produce.
    • Ie. arg- cannot synthesize arginine, it needs it in the environment.
  17. Wild type
    A bacterium that isn't an auxotroph.
  18. Nodules
    The area in plants where nitrifying bacteria live.
  19. Legumes
    The plants that have a relationhip with nitrifying bacteria
  20. Capsid
    The protein coat on Viruses.
  21. Genome(microorganisms)
    The nucleic acid in viruses.
  22. Attachment (virus)
    • The virus attaches itself to the host cell.
    • In this situation the virus is a parasite.
  23. Infection
    • The virus injects its genome into the host cell.
    • Occurs after attachment.
  24. Lytic cycle.
    • After attachment and infection the virus here:
    • Imediatly tanscribes and tanslates its genome via the host.
    • Then the genome rapidly multiplies.
    • The the host cell is lysed and the new viruses are released.
  25. Lysogenic cycle
    • After attachment and infection:
    • The viral genome is integrated with the host genome.
    • The viral genome is replicated with the host genome.
    • The virus is released after a given period of time.
    • Imediatly tanscribes and tanslates its genome via the host.
    • Then the genome rapidly multiplies.
    • The the host cell is lysed and the new viruses are released.
  26. Envelope (virus)
    After the viruses break out of the host cell, they are coated ina plasma membrane.
  27. RNA-dependent RNA polymerase
    RNA is read by the virus, then RNA is created.
  28. RNA-dependent DNA polymerase
    • RNA is read then DNA is created.
    • Also known as reverse transcriptase.
  29. reverse transcriptase
    • RNA is read then DNA is created.
    • Also known as RNA-dependent DNA polymerase.
  30. Restriction enzymes
    These enzymes recognize a particular DNA sequence and cut it.
  31. EcoRI
    The restriction enzyme found in E. Coli.
  32. Staggered cut
    The DNA is cut and it produces sticky ends.
  33. Sticky ends
    Can combine back with the DNA
  34. Blunt cut
    The DNA is cut straight acorss both strands.
  35. Plasmid
    A circular piece of DNA found in bacteria and sometimes yeast.
  36. Restriction map
    A map of the location of restriction sites withing the DNA segment.
  37. Vector
    • A way that DNA is moved between species.
    • A virus is an example of a vector.

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