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- the term refers to films made by a new generation of French film-makers in the late 50s.
- Theses films were low-budget, and went against the prevailing trends in 50s French cinema � literary adaptations, costume dramas, massive co-productions.
- The young Turks of the New Wave called this old-fashioned style le cin�ma de papa.
- Critics for Cahiers du cin�ma before becoming film-makers. Bazin is the father of the New Wave.
New Wave Directors
- Fran�ois Truffaut (1932-1984)
- Jean-Luc Godard (1930-)
- Claude Chabrol (1930-)
- Agn�s Varda (1928-
- Alain Resnais (1922-)
Francois Truffaut Films
1959 -- Les 400 Cents Coups
Jean-Luc Godard films
- 1960 � Breathless
- 1961 � A Woman is a Woman
- 1964 � A Married Woman
- 1965 � Pierrot le fou
- 1966 � Masculine / Feminine
- 1967 � 2 or 3 Things I Know about Her
- 1967 � Weekend
- 2001 � In Praise of Love
- 2004 � Notre Musique
Claude Chabrol (1930-)
1958 � Le Beau Serge
Agn�s Varda (1928-)
- 1954 � La Pointe courte
- Cl�o de 5 � 7
Jacques Rivette (1928-)
1961 � Paris Belongs to Us
Alain Resnais (1922-)
1959� Hiroshima, mon amour
Eric Rohmer ( 1922-)
1959 � Le Signe du lion
New Wave Doctrines � 1
- Bazin � ideas about realism and mise en sc�ne
- Politique des Auteurs:
- Alexandre Astruc (1948): �The Birth of a New Avant-Garde: la Cam�ra-stylo.�
- �The filmmaker writes with his camera as a writer writes with his pen.�
- Truffaut (1954): �A Certain Tendency in French Cinema.�
- Cites Welles: �I believe a film is good to the degree it expresses the man who created it.�
- Films are personal � in them one finds expressed a temperament and a world-view
- Against scenarists� films
- 1)A film can be read as expressing a personal view of life
- 2)One can look for common elements in a director�s work
- 3)Promoted the study of film style
New Wave Doctrines � 2
- Mise en sc�ne:
- Sartre: �One isn�t a writer for having chosen to say certain things, but for having said them in a certain way.�
- Hoveyda (1960): �Why not the same for cinema? The thought of a cin�aste appears through his mise en sc�ne�. The task of the critic is to discover behind the images the particular �manner� of the auteur.�
- [Term used differently by Cahiers critics. Not �staging,� not �setting / costume / lighting / movement within the frame.�]
- Term used to validate as auteurs certain American filmmakers who, operating under the studio system, had no control over scripts, and thus expressed their personal style through distinctive mise en sc�ne.
Mise en sc�ne
the expressive tool of the filmmaker
New Wave Practices
- Location shooting � light-weight cameras
- Use of non-professional actors, or unknowns
- Distanciation so audience identification cannot occur
- No necessary sense of classical narrative
- Subversion of genres
- Disorienting editing
- Time: the contemporary
- Place: Paris
- The New Wave is the first movement to be consistently autoreflexive � these films reflect on their place in film tradition, by making (sometimes obscure) allusions to other films.
- The New Wave begins the postmodern tradition of homage.
- The term film noir conjures up a series of traits from Hollywood films in the 40s:
- -noir characters and stories (drifters, private eyes, femmes fatales)
- - noir plot structures (flashbacks, subjective narration)
- - noir sets ( urban diners, shabby offices, nightclubs)
- - noir decorations (venetian blinds, neon lights, modern art)
- - noir costumes (trenchcoats, shoulder pads, snap-brim hats)
- - noir accessories (cigarettes, snub-nose revolvers, cocktails)
- - noir performances
- - noir language (hard-boiled speech in Hammett & Chandler)
FILM NOIR � Themes
- Cynical treatment of the American Dream
- Complicated play with gender and sexuality
- Foregrounding of cinematic style
- Narremore contends that film noir functions much like big words such as romantic and classic � not exclusively American, not a genre, not a period
FILM NOIR -- Origins
- Synthesis of German Expressionism and American hard-boiled fiction (Cain, Chandler, Hammett)
- Noir is born � Paris 1946-1959
- 1946 � Appears in writings on American films released in France after the war:
- The Maltese Falcon
- Double Indemnity
- Murder, My Sweet
- Lost Weekend
- Citizen Kane
FILM NOIR -- Origins
- French cin�-clubs: viewed film not commercially, but as art
- Noir films served as examples for European art cinema to re-fashion itself on Hollywood lines
- Dialectic of European art film and film noir =French New Wave
- French �invented� noir in part to evoke a golden age of their own cinema, late 30s: H�tel du Nord / P�p� le Moko / Daybreak
FILM NOIR -- Ideas
- Borde & Chaumeton � Panorama du film noir am�ricain (1955)
- Existentialism � hero as outsider / society is a web of interlocking games / emphasis on death / existence is absurd
- Surrealism � violence / urban decor has an aura of the marvelous / oneiric, cruel, erotic, bizarre, ambivalent
- The ideal noir hero is the opposite of John Wayne: he is passive, masochistic, morbidly curious, �mature� (old), not very handsome
- Women are like heroines of Marquis de Sade�s tales: beautiful, adept with firearms, �probably frigid�
- The �eroticization of violence�
- �All components of noir style� are designed to disorient the spectator� by attacking certain conventions:
- Honest hero / feminine heroine / distinction between good and evil / logical action / well-defined characters with clear motives
- The disappearance of psychological bearings or guideposts
- An anti-genre that reveals the dark side of savage capitalism
- A feeling of discontinuity /
- an intermingling of social realism and oneirism /
- an anarcho-leftist critique of bourgeois ideology /
- an eroticized treatment of violence /
- Commodity culture seen as a wasteland
- An inversion of capitalist and puritan values
Major Movements / Periods
- Primitive Cinema
- Cinema of Attractions
- Classical Hollywood Cinema
- German Expressionism
- Russian Montage
- Late Silent Era
- The Coming of Sound
- French Poetic Realism
- Screwball Comedy
- Italian Neorealism
- Film Noir
- French New Wave
Cinema of Attractions
- 1907 to around 1913
- a cinema that displays its visibility, willing to rupture a self-enclosed fictional world for a chance to solicit the attention of the spectator."� This meaning that cinema could be created, not necessarily as an entertainment function but more along the lines that a film would attract its spectators by presenting something exclusive, something unique
- Voyage dans la lune (1902)
- Un Chien Andalou (1928)
Classical Hollywood Cinema
- designate both a visual and sound style for making motion pictures and a mode of production used in the American Film Industry between 1921 and 1969
- Classical style is fundamentally built on the principle of continuity editing or "invisible" style. That is, the camera and the sound recording should never call attention to themselves (as they might in films from earlier periods, other countries or in a modernist or postmodernist work).
- The Jazz Singer (1927)
- refers to a number of related creative movements beginning in Germany before WWI that reached a peak in Berlin, during the 1920s. These developments in Germany were part of a larger Expressionist movement in north and central European culture in fields such as architecture, painting, and cinema.
- Le Cabinet de Dr. Caligari (1920)
- Nosferatu (1922)
Russian Montage/Soviet Montage
- is an approach to understanding and creating cinema that relies heavily upon editing. Sergei Eisenstein noted that montage is "the nerve of cinema", and that "to determine the nature of montage is to solve the specific problem of cinema
- The Battleship Potempkin (1925)
Late Silent Era
A silent film is a film with no synchronized recorded sound, especially with no spoken dialogue. In silent films for entertainment the dialogue is transmitted through muted gestures, pantomime and title cards. Synchronized dialogue was only made practical in the late 1920s with the perfection of the audion amplifier tube and the introduction of the Vitaphone system. After the release of the Jazz Singer in 1927, "talkies" became more and more commonplace.
The Coming of Sound
Vitaphone was a sound film system used for feature films and nearly 1,000 short subjects made by Warner Brothers and its sister studio First National from 1926 to 1931. Vitaphone was the last major sound-on-disc system and the only one which was widely used and commercially successful. The soundtrack was not printed on the film itself, but issued separately on phonograph records.
French Poetic Realism
was a film movement in France of the 1930s and through the war years. More a tendency than a movement, Poetic Realism is not strongly unified like Soviet Montage or French Impressionism but were individuals who created this lyrical style. Its leading filmmakers were Pierre Chenal, Jean Vigo, Julien Duvivier, Marcel Carn�, the most significant director Jean Renoir. Renoir made a wide variety of films some influenced by the leftist Popular Front group and even a lyrical short feature film. Frequent stars of these films were Jean Gabin, Michel Simon, Simone Signoret, and Mich�le Morgan.
is a principally American genre of comedy film that became popular during the Great Depression, originating in the early 1930s and thriving until the early 1940s. It is characterized by fast-paced repartee, farcical situations, escapist themes, and plot lines involving courtship and marriage
- is a national film movement characterized by stories set amongst the poor and the working class, filmed on location, frequently using nonprofessional actors. Italian Neorealist films mostly contend with the difficult economic and moral conditions of post-WWII Italy, reflecting the changes in the Italian psyche and the conditions of everyday life: poverty and desperation.
The Birth of Nation
The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari
The Battleship Potempkin
The Passion of Joan of Arc
The Rules of the Game
The Philadelphia Story
The Bicycle Thieves
De Sica, 1948
Nights of Cabiria
- Arrival of a Train at Le Ciotat, 1896
- Baby�s Lunch, 1895
- The Sprinkler Sprinkled, 1895
- Workers Leaving a Factory, 1895
- A Trip to the Moon, 1902
- Living Playing Cards, 1904
- The Man with the Rubber Head, 1901
Rough Sea at Dover, 1895
The Big Swallow, 1901
Explosion of a Motor Car, 1900
History of a Crime, 1901
The Great Train Robbery, 1903
Troubles of a Grass Widower, 1912
- A Girl and her Trust, 1912
- Intolerance, 1916
- The Tramp, 1915
- Modern Times, 1936
Coney Island, 1917
An Andalusian Dog, 1929
The Last Laugh, 1924
The Blue Angel, 1930
- Daybreak, 1939
- Children of Paradise, 1945
Germany, Year Zero, 1948
Man with a Movie Camera, 1929
The Messenger, 1999
Trouble in Paradise, 1932
The Great Dictator, 1940
M. Hulot's Holiday, 1953
It Happened One Night, 1934
La Grande Illusion, 1937
Rome, Open City, 1945
- La Dolce Vita, 1960
- 8 ?, 1963
The Maltese Falcon, 1941
- The Third Man, 1949
- Psycho, 1960
- The Birds, 1963
the first permanent exhibition outlet for showing films that was popular from about 1900 to 1914 and drastically altered means of exhibition and habits of viewing films. Nickelodeons were one of the two main exhibition venues for motion pictures, apart from Vaudeville theaters.
Motion Picture Patents Company
- (MPPC, also known as the Edison Trust), founded in December 1908, was a trust of all the major American film companies (Edison, Biograph, Vitagraph, Essanay, Selig, Lubin, Kalem, American Star, American Path�), the leading film distributor (George Kleine) and the biggest supplier of raw film stock, Eastman Kodak. The MPPC ended the domination of foreign films on American screens, standardized the manner in which films were distributed and exhibited in America, and improved the quality of American motion pictures by internal competition. But it also discouraged its members' entry into feature film production, and the use of outside financing, both to its members' eventual detriment.
- Feature films (multi-reel)
the method of creating, promoting and exploiting movie stars in Classical Hollywood cinema. Studios would select promising young actors and glamorise and create personas for them, often inventing new names and even new backgrounds. The star system put an emphasis on the image rather than the acting, although discreet acting, voice, and dancing lessons were a common part of the regimen. Women were expected to behave like ladies, and were never to leave the house without makeup and stylish clothes. Men were expected to be seen in public as gentlemen. Morality clauses were a common part of actors' studio contracts.
distance between the camera and the action
method of coloring the film reels in the early years of cinema
Analytical editing (cut-ins)
breaking the space of a continuous scene into several shots for dramatic & psychological reasons
this refers to a style of editing developed most completely during Hollywood�s studio system days, a style that remains a standard way of shooting a scene for film or television; a number of different shot taken at different times and even at different places are joined so that they seem to roll continuously from one to the other, first to last, while keeping the the spatial relationships within the scene clear
editing shots together representing separate aspects and locations of the action; crosscutting suggests that the different aspects of events are happening simultaneously ("meanwhile") and helps to build dramatic tension
were short subject originally shown in theaters in conjunction with a feature film
- From the early 1920s through the early 1950s, the American motion picture had evolved into an industry controlled by a cartel of companies, also known as a "mature oligopoly"
- The prevalence of vertical integration wholly predetermined the relationships between both studios and networks and modified criterion in financing. Networks began arranging content initiated by commonly owned studios and stipulated a portion of the syndication revenues in order for a show to gain a spot on the schedule if it was produced by a studio without common ownership
a system of selling multiple films to a theater as a unit. Block booking was the prevailing practice among Hollywood's major studios from the turn of the 1930s until it was outlawed by the U.S. Supreme Court's decision in United States v. Paramount Pictures, Inc. (1948).
A prolific and prominent French film director from the silent era. Between 1906 and 1924 he directed over 630 films. He is primarily known for the serials Fant�mas, Les Vampires and Judex.
a Swedish actor, screenwriter, and film director.
Cecil B. De Mille
an American film director and Academy Award-winning film producer in both silent and sound films. He was renowned for the flamboyance and showmanship of his movies. Among his best-known films are Cleopatra; Samson and Delilah; The Greatest Show on Earth.
Thomas H. Ince
an American silent film actor, director, screenwriter and producer of more than 100 films and pioneering studio mogul. Known as the "Father of the Western", he invented many mechanisms of professional movie production, introducing early Hollywood to the "assembly line" system of filmmaking.
director and was known as the innovator of slapstick comedy in film. During his lifetime he was known at times as the "King of Comedy".
- Universum Film Aktiengesellschaft
- a film company that was the principal film studio in Germany, home of the German film industry during the Weimar Republic and through World War II, and a major force in world cinema from 1917 to 1945. After World War II, UFA continued producing movies and television programmes to the present day, making it the longest standing film company in Germany.
- a German-born film director. His urbane comedies of manners gave him the reputation of being Hollywood's most elegant and sophisticated director; as his prestige grew, his films were promoted as having "the Lubitsch touch."
- Warner Bros.
- a Swiss-born German/Austrian actor. He was the first actor to win the Academy Award for Best Actor, as well as the first person to be presented an Oscar. He later starred in a number of Nazi propaganda films.
- Starred in Murnau�s The Last Laugh
a German-born film producer and executive. He was involved in the German Expressionist film movement during the silent era as the head of production at Decla, Decla-Bioscop and from 1924 to 1926 at Ufa responsible for many of the best known movies of the Weimar Republic such as The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (1920)
F. W. Murnau
one of the most influential German film directors of the silent era, and a prominent figure in the expressionist movement in German cinema during the 1920s.
an Austrian-American filmmaker, screenwriter, and occasional film producer and actor. One of the best known �migr�s from Germany's school of Expressionism, he was dubbed the "Master of Darkness.� His most famous films are the groundbreaking Metropolis and M,
an Austrian-born American stage and film actor and director.
- a type of German film that offers an intimate, cinematic portrait of lower middle class life. The name derives from a theater, the Kammerspiele, opened in 1906 by a major stage director Max Reinhardt to stage intimate dramas for small audiences
- prominent figure: Murnau, Mayer, and Pabst
an Austrian screenplay writer who wrote or co-wrote the screenplays to The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (1920), The Haunted Castle (1921), Der Letzte Mann (1924), Tartuffe (1926), Sunrise (1927) and 4 Devils (1928)
- an innovation by filmmaker F.W. Murnau that allowed for filmmakers to get shots from cameras in motion enabling them to use pan shots, tracking shots, tilts, crane shots etc.
- The technique was introduced by Murnau in his 1924 silent film, The Last Laugh, and is arguably the most important stylistic innovation of the 20th century, setting the stage for some of the most commonly used cinematic techniques of modern contemporary cinema.
The New Objectivity is a name often given to the Modern architecture that emerged in Europe, primarily German-speaking Europe, in the 1920s and 30s. The New Objectivity remodeled many German cities in this period.
1901-1957, Austrian film director
an American dancer, model, showgirl and silent film actress, noted for popularizing the bobbed haircut. Brooks is best known as the lead in three feature films made in Europe, including two G. W. Pabst films: Pandora's Box (1929), Diary of a Lost Girl (1929), and Prix de Beaut� (Miss Europe) (1930)
a cinematographer and film director most noted for photographing Metropolis (1927), Dracula (1931), and television's I Love Lucy (1951-1957).
philosophy that originated in Russia beginning in 1919, which was a rejection of the idea of autonomous art. The movement was in favour of art as a practice for social purposes. Its influence was pervasive, with major impacts upon architecture, graphic and industrial design, theatre, film, dance, fashion and to some extent music
The Kuleshev experiments
- a film editing (montage) effect demonstrated by Russian filmmaker Lev Kuleshov in the 1910s and 1920s.
- Kuleshov edited together a short film in which a shot of the expressionless face of Tsarist was alternated with various other shots (a plate of soup, a girl, a little girl's coffin. An audience believed that the expression on Mosjoukine's face was different each time he appeared, depending on whether he was "looking at" the plate of soup, the girl, or the coffin, showing an expression of hunger, desire or grief respectively. Actually the footage of Mosjoukine was the same shot repeated over and over again
- The montage experiments carried out by Kuleshov in the late 1910s and early 1920s formed the theoretical basis of Soviet montage cinema
Eisenstein's montage theories are based on the idea that montage originates in the "collision" between different shots in an illustration of the idea of thesis and antithesis. His collisions of shots were based on conflicts of scale, volume, rhythm, motion (speed, as well as direction of movement within the frame), as well as more conceptual values such as class.
Cuts that repeat part or all of an action, thus expanding its viewing time and plot duration. Most commonly associated with experimental filmmaking, due to its temporally disconcerting and purely graphic nature, it is also featured in films in which action and movement take precedence over plot and dialogue
Shot transitions that omit parts of an event, causing an ellipses in plot and story duration
Opposite of a graphic match, which is when the shapes, colors and/or overall movement of two shots match in composition, either within a scene or, especially, across a transition between two scenes. (i.e. 2001: Space Odyssey)
- a Soviet pioneer documentary film, newsreel director and cinema theorist. His filming practices and theories influenced the cin�ma v�rit� style of documentary moviemaking and the Dziga Vertov Group, a radical filmmaking cooperative which was active in the 1960s.
- Man With a Movie Camera
The Volstead Act
1919-Prohibition act preventing the sale of harmful alcohols
The Jazz Age
- Women did the Charleston, smoked in public and but their hair short
- Drinking was prohibited=upper class parties (much like college)
- World finance shifted to NYC
The Big Three
- Loew�s � MGM
- First National
The Little Five
- Warner Bros.
Producer�s Distribution Corp.
a short-lived Hollywood film distribution company, organized in 1925 and dissolved in March 1927. In its brief heyday, film director Cecil B. DeMille was its primary shareholder and major talent.
Film Booking Office
an American film studio of the silent era, a producer and distributor of mostly low-budget films. The business began as Robertson-Cole (U.S.), the American division of a British import�export company. Robertson-Cole initiated movie production in 1920; two years later, a corporate reorganization led to the company's new name
- The Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America (MPPDA)
- 1922�headed by Will Hays
- Pressure producers to eliminated offensive content
- Mark Pickford
- Charlie Chaplin
- G.W. Griffith
- Douglas Fairbanks
Studio with no windows
1920s and 30s, an aesthetic film technique characterized by the use of gauzy fabrics, filters, specials lenses and other methods to create a "soft" look
Panchromatic film stock
Produces a realistic reproduction of a scene as it appears to the human eye. Almost all modern photographic film is panchromatic, but some types are orthochromatic and are not sensitive to certain wavelengths of light. As naturally prepared, silver halide emulsions are much more sensitive to blue and UV light than to green and red wavelengths
The Colored Players
an independent silent film production company based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Primarily founded by David Starkman and Sherman H. Dudley in 1926, the film company for the most part made silent melodramatic films that featured all African American casts
- He began buying nickelodeons, eventually expanding into a film distribution service, the Laemmle Film Service.
- focused on low budget films, founder of Universal studios
- an American actor, screenwriter, director and producer. He was best known for his swashbuckling roles in silent films such as The Thief of Bagdad, Robin Hood, and The Mark of Zorro.
- An astute businessman, Fairbanks was a founding member of United Artists. Fairbanks was also a founding member of The Motion Picture Academy and hosted the first Oscars Ceremony in 1929. With his marriage to Mary Pickford in 1920, the couple became Hollywood royalty and Fairbanks was referred to as "The King of Hollywood", a nickname later passed on to actor Clark Gable. His career rapidly declined with the advent of the "talkies".
a Canadian-American motion picture actress, co-founder of the film studio United Artists and one of the original 36 founders of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences
an American silent film actor, comedian, director, and screenwriter. Starting at the Selig Polyscope Company he eventually moved to Keystone Studios where he worked with Mabel Normand and Harold Lloyd. He mentored Charlie Chaplin and discovered Buster Keaton and Bob Hope.
Erich von Stroheim
- Actor and director, starred in La Grande Illusion, and Sunset Boulevard among others.
- Was a director for Universal studios
- Director for universal studios
- An American film director. He was famous for both his Westerns such as Stagecoach. His four Academy Awards for Best Director (1935, 1940, 1941, 1952) is a record. In particular, Ford was a pioneer of location shooting and the long shot which frames his characters against a vast, harsh and rugged natural terrain
was an American film director, film producer, and screenwriter whose career spanned nearly seven decades. In 1979 he was awarded an Honorary Academy Award for his "incomparable achievements as a cinematic creator and innovator
- an American actress, singer and producer with United Artists. She was one of the most prominent stars during the silent film era as both an actress and a fashion icon, especially under the direction of Cecil B. DeMille.
- Is renown for her role as Norma Desmond in Sunset Boulevard
an American actress who rose to stardom in the silent film era of the 1920s. It was her appearance as a spunky shopgirl in the film It that brought her global fame and the nickname "The It Girl." Bow came to personify the roaring twenties and is described as its leading sex symbol.
- an American film actor and producer, most famous for his silent comedies.
- Harold Lloyd ranks alongside Charlie Chaplin and Buster Keaton as one of the most popular and influential film comedians of the silent film era
- His films frequently contained "thrill sequences" of extended chase scenes and daredevil physical feats, for which he is best remembered today. Lloyd hanging from the hands of a clock high above the street in Safety Last! (1923) is one of the most enduring images in all of cinema
Josef von Sternberg
an Austrian-American film director. He is particularly noted for his distinctive mise en sc�ne, use of lighting and soft lens, and seven-film collaboration with actress Marlene Dietrich
- an American motion picture actor, director and screenwriter.
- Browning's career spanned the silent and talkie eras. Best known as the director of Dracula (1931), the cult classic Freaks (1932), and classic silent film collaborations with Lon Chaney, Browning directed many movies in a wide range of genres.
- a Swedish film actress. Garbo was an international star and icon during Hollywood's silent and classic periods
- The Joyless Street by Pabst 1925
- Camille 1936
The Introduction of Sound
- The transition from silent to sound film marks a period ofgrave instability as well as great creativity in the history of cinema. The new technology produced panic and con- fusion, but it stimulated experiments and expectations too. While it undermined Hollywood's international pos- ition for several years, it led to a revival of national film
- production elsewhere.
The Jazz Singer
- 1927-by Alan Crosland
- starred Al Jolson, May McAvoy, and Warner Oland
- Warner Bros, vitaphone sound on disc
- He pioneered many techniques in the suspense and psychological thriller genres.
- Multi camera use, sound. The Birds, and Psycho
Blimps and booms
the microphone 'blimp' is to attenuate the wind noise without interfering with the desired sound
Early in 1929, Tobis and Klangfilm began comarketing their recording and playback technologies. As ERPI began to wire theaters around Europe, Tobis-Klangfilm claimed that the Western Electric system infringed on the Tri-Ergon patents, stalling the introduction of American technology in many places. Just as RCA had entered the movie business to maximize its recording system's value, Tobis also established its own production operations.
Form of editing that transition from one scene to the next using sound
was an influential German-born film director who worked in Germany, US, France
Contrapuntal use of sound
a group of Soviet filmmakers, including Sergei Eisenstein, proclaimed that the use of image and sound in juxtaposition, the so-called contrapuntal method, would raise the cinema to "unprecedented power and cultural height.�
- French filmmake
- A Nous La Liberte!
Recording and synching sound after the filming of a movie
Poetic Realism / Occupied France
- The Popular Front
- a broad coalition of different political groupings, often made up of leftists and centrists. Being very broad, they can sometimes include centrist and liberal (or "bourgeois") forces as well as socialist and communist ("working-class") groups. Popular fronts are larger in scope than united fronts, which contain only working-class groups.
- a production designer.
- He worked on the majority of Marcel Carn�'s films, including Dr�le de drame (1937), Quai des brumes (1938), H�tel du Nord (1938), Le Jour se l�ve (1939), and Les Enfants du paradis (1945).
- a French poet and screenwriter. His poems became and remain very popular in the French-speaking world, particularly in schools. Some of the movies he wrote are extremely well regarded, with Les Enfants du Paradis considered one of the greatest films of all time.
- The Vichy regime
- the government of France which collaborated with the Axis powers from July 1940 to August 1944. Vichy authorities aided in the rounding-up of Jews and other "undesirables", and at times, Vichy French military forces actively opposed the Allies. Much of the French public initially supported the new government despite its pro-Nazi policies, seeing it as necessary to maintain a degree of French autonomy and territorial integrity.
The studios were founded in 1937 by Benito Mussolini and his head of cinema Luigi Freddi for propaganda purposes, under the slogan "Il cinema � l'arma pi� forte" (Cinema is the most powerful weapon). The studios were bombed by the Western Allies during World War II.
White telephone films
White telephone films, or Telefoni Bianchi, were melodramas and comedies made in Italy in the 1930s and 1940s that were located in upper class settings and about the upper class. This symbol of wealth represented by the white phone served not only as a visual hallmark of the genre, but also implies its time: the era of sound. Inspired by and using the techniques and perspectives of Hollywood cinema, these films came before the trend of Fascist propaganda and neorealism of the late 1940sand early 1950s.
it is considered by many to be the first Italian neorealist film
an Italian screenwriter and one of the first theorists and proponents of the Neorealist movement in Italian cinema. Wrote the Bicycle Thieves
Pink (rosy) neorealism
lighter atmospheres, perhaps more coherent with the improving conditions of the country
1935 film by Jean Renoir. It is notable for its use of non-professional actors and location shooting. It is also generally considered the major precursor to the Italian neorealist movement. Luchino Visconti, one of the founding members of the neorealist movement, was assistant director on the film
Bazin started to write about film in 1943 and was a co-founder of the film magazine Cahiers du cin�ma in 1951, along with Jacques Doniol-Valcroze and Lo Duca.