General Ecology

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anime1003
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152697
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General Ecology
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2012-05-11 16:22:58
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Final Exam
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Chp 15-23
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  1. bennefits of Mutualism
    • Services: Pollination, protection
    • Resources: nutrition, Habitat
  2. Clown Fish Anemone Relationship
    Service partnership
  3. Service Partnership
    • fish gains protection from predator and recieves nest site
    • anenome gains protection from predator
    • nutritional bennefits for both
  4. Resource Partnership
    • animal gains cellulose breakdown
    • microbes gain nutrition and habitat
  5. Example: Mutualistic food web
    • Pitcher plants harbor mutualistic food webs of living inhabitants
    • (inquilines).
  6. Inquiline community
    • bacterium that breakdown fine organic matter for the plant
    • act as digestive enzymes
  7. Why does the Pitcher plant gain from inquiline communities
    • Bacteria eat fine organic matter and
    • make nutrients for plant.
    • Pitcher plant makes no digestive
    • enzymes.
    • Plant recieves nitrogen
  8. Rhizobium bacteria have a mutualism with ______
    legumes (beans, peas).
  9. Lichen's relationship with micro organisms
    mutualism between a fungus and an algae of the Green or Cyanobacteria division.
  10. Ree Building coral (who and what)
    Animal (polyp) of the Cnidarian phylum and a photosynthetic protozoan of the Dinoflagellate division called zooxanthellae.
  11. Bennefits of zooxanthelle to Reef Building Coral
    • removes excess ammonia
    • enhances calcification
  12. Biodversity Defined
    • Variation in life at the Species
    • and Genetic levels.
  13. Value of Species Diversity
    • Ecological health
    • - more diverse communities recover faster
    • - a relative measure of habitat quality
    • Human resource
    • - warehouse of chemistry, genetics, technology
    • Understanding origins of life
    • Quality of human experience
    • - visual, auditory, olfactory
  14. Biodiversity measures
    • Richness: number of species (S)
    • Evenness: relative abundance of the species
  15. Shannon-Wiener Index:
    • H'= - SUM (p*i Log (base e) p*i)
    • for i = 1 to S
    • where pi is the proportion of the ith species.
  16. Rank-abundance curve:
    Graphical display of diversity.
  17. In Comparing Diversity Data
    • Standardizing effort is always
    • an issue.
    • - time
    • - area
    • - habitat type
  18. Global patterns (latitude)
    Biodiversity is richest at the tropics and declines poleward for most groups of organisms.
  19. 3 Hypotheses for global pattern
    • 1) Time - uninterrupted time has permitted more speciation and less extinction in the tropics.
    • 2) Climate stability - The tropics are more stable year round.
    • 3) Bigger Pie - More energy and land area in tropics supports more species.
  20. Climate stability - The tropics are more
    stable year round.
    • Climate and resources are more constant year round.
    • This promotes niche specialization allowing species packing.
  21. Regional patterns (islands)
    • 1) Species richness (S) generally increases with island size (land or water area)
    • 2) Species richness (S) generally increases with proximity of island to a colonization source.
  22. Equilibrium Model of Island Biogeography
    • Explains species richness of islands as a dynamic equilibrium of
    • ongoing immigration by new species and extinction by old species.
  23. As Island fills:
    • Immigration rates of new species decrease
    • Extinction rates increase
    • 1) Chance probability
    • 2) Increasing competition
  24. Crosed lines: expected supportable population
  25. How do island size and island proximity play a role in the model?
    • Larger islands support larger populations thus lower extinction rates.
    • Closer islands are easier to reach thus support higher immigration rates.
  26. Proximity effect
    Closer islands have higher immigration rates from source.
  27. Size Effect:
    Bigger islands have lower extinction rates. They also have more diverse habitats.
  28. The Complete Model of Island Biogeography
    • S is lowest on small & far islands
    • S is highest on large & close islands
    • S is controlled by combined
    • immigration and extinction rates.
  29. Two main contributions to ecology of the Complete Model of Island Biogeography
    • 1) Relative species richness can be predicted.
    • 2) Immigration and Extinction are
    • natural processes species turnover is inevitable.
  30. Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis:
    A community maintains its highest S under intermediate levels of disturbance.
  31. TYpes of disturbance in Intertiddal zone
    • Small boulder (most disturbance)
    • Large boulder (least disturbance),
    • Intermediate boulder (moderate disturbance)
  32. Trophic level
    • set of organisms that are equal distance in
    • energy steps from the original source.
  33. Connnections:
    • arrows show direction of energy or material (carbon)
    • flow
  34. Methods for determining connections:
    • observe feeding
    • experiment
    • stomache contents
    • Chemistry
  35. ecosystem
    community and its non living environment
  36. Five primary levels of ecosystem
    • microrganism
    • detritus
    • carnivoires
    • herbavoires
    • primary producers
  37. species are lumped into functional groups with respect to ___ and __
    energy and nutrients
  38. detritus
    dead organic matter
  39. immobilization
    conversion of inorganics to organics
  40. mobilization
    conversion of organics to inorganics (mineralization)
  41. Primary production
    conversion of sun to chemical bond energy
  42. biomass (kg)
    mass per area
  43. Productivity (kg/yr)
    biomass made per unit time
  44. Gross Primary productivity (GGP)
    total biomass
  45. Net primary productivity
    total biomass left over after respiration
  46. evapotransportation
    amount of water that evaporates from land and transpires from plants
  47. _____ is limited in aquatic systems in shallow water
    Phosphorus
  48. upwelling
    • offshore winds displace surface water that is
    • replaced by deep, nutrient-rich water.
  49. Ecological Efficiency:
    • % of energy in biomass at a lower trophic
    • level transferred to biomass at the next higher trophic level.
  50. human impact on carbon cycle
    fossil fuel burning of lithosphere is artificially boosting flux to atmosphere, causing warming.
  51. Main pools of Carbon Cycle
    ocean, atmosphere, lithosphere
  52. main pools of nitrogen cycle
    ocean, atmosphere, lithosphere
  53. Human impact on Nitrogen cycle
    • Fossil fuel burning increases N flux to
    • atmosphere, causing acid rain.
  54. Main pools of Phosphorus Cycle
    ocean, lithosphere
  55. Human impact on Phosphorus Cycles
    Land abuse and population growth overload fluxes to lakes.
  56. abiotic decomposition
    physical (e.g. leaching) and chemical (e.g. hydrolysis)
  57. biotic decomposition
    living organism facilitated
  58. Rates of decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems.
    Largely controlled by 4 factors that limit growth of
    decomposer assemblage:
    • a) Temperature
    • b) Moisture
    • c) Nutrients
    • d) Oxygen
  59. Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest: summary
    • - site of long-term ecosystem experiments.
    • - Nutrient loss on each watershed is monitored through stream water.
    • - Without disturbance, 0.1% of N in organic matter is leaked to stream outflow.
  60. Effects on deforested watershed
    • - Trees no longer regulated water or nutrient cycling.
    • - N lost may take centuries to return.
    • - Ecosystems rely on nutrient cycling.
  61. succession
    • Change in floral and faunal composition at a
    • single site through time.
  62. Primary succession
    • Occurs on newly exposed substrate
    • (Volcanic eruption, Glacier retreat).
  63. Secondary succession:
    • Occurs where disturbance
    • destroys community but not soil (Fire, Wind,
    • Agriculture).
  64. Chronosequence
    Sequence of ages in the study site.(age range of environment)
  65. most environment richness returns in the first ____ years
    100
  66. Three Stages of Succession.
    • pioneer
    • Alnus
    • climax
  67. pioneers stage
    • includes lichens and Dryas (shrub)
    • - Retain water, Build soil thickness
    • r-selected
  68. Alnus (alder) dominance
    • a Nitrogen fixer
    • - Enrich soil with N
    • - lower pH from 8 to 5
  69. Climax (final) stage
    • Picea (spruce) dominance
    • Major changes to soil and soil chemistry occur.
    • K-selected
  70. Facilitation
    • Early species modify the environment to make it
    • easier for other species to colonize. Some change microclimate.
  71. Secondary Succession
    • - soil already there (shorter time scale)
    • - soil bank may provide seeds
    • - dispersing seeds more likely to germinate
  72. Pine facilitation of Oak:
    • Pine makes shade, reduces wind and temp. of understory.
    • This increases soil moisture needed by oak.
  73. Question of Hubbard brook
    • How do successional
    • plants modify nutrient retention?
  74. 5 major NW Pacific salmon species:
    Chinook, Sockeye, Coho, Pink, Chum.
  75. Salmon: survivorshp
    Type III
  76. smolt
    • Transition stage (months)
    • - become silver in color.
    • - lose territoriality (start schooling).
    • - become salinity tolerant (change from hyperto hypoosmotic).
    • - imprinting occurs (chemical memory of natal stream).
  77. par
    • First 1 to 2 years
    • - camouflaged to blend with stream.
    • - eat insects/plankton in the stream.
    • - use low-current areas (woody debris).
  78. Why salmon live in ocean
    Oceans are more productive than freshwaters in temperate/boreal latitudes.
  79. Semelparous
    • (reproduce once then die)
    • Big-bang strategy.
  80. Redd
    • Gravel depression made by female where eggs
    • are released and fertilized by male(s).
    • - eggs are oxygen & temperature sensitive.
  81. Adult Salmon
    • Can reach massive size
    • - Return to natal stream
  82. Navigation in ocean phase
    sun angle, magnetic field, visual cues
  83. navigation in stream phase
    olfaction (smell)
  84. 3 ways salmon navigate
    • 1) Fish use olfaction.
    • 2) Imprinted scent
    • promotes positive
    • rheotaxis.
    • 3) When outside trail, fish
    • show negative rheotaxis
    • until trail is found.
  85. How stream phase changes adults
    • - Feeding ceases, all energy given to gonads and migration.
    • - Color change from silver to red (mate recognition).
    • - Upper jaw hooked and fangs develop in males (fighting).
  86. Is productivity of natal stream food webs related to salmon carcasses?
    Yes
  87. Are nutrients in salmon carcasses driving productivity of riparian forests
    • Yes
    • source of N (ocean N)
    • to bears, birds, small mammals.
  88. Riparian trees, in turn, provide ecosystem services to salmon:
    • - shade (moderate temperature)
    • - litter (organic carbon)
    • - large woody debris (LWD) provides habitat for parr and invertebrates (parr food).
  89. 1. Ecology is best defined as the scientific study of the relationships between _______________ and ________________.
    organisms, the environment
  90. An isosmotic condition is achieved, or nearly achieved, in
    echinoderms and sharks
  91. In a population of plants in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium, yellow color is given by the genotype aa and red color is given by the genotype AA or Aa. If the frequency of the A allele is 0.7, how many red plants are expected in a population of 100 plants?
    91
  92. In addition to Darwin, ________________ is co-credited with discovery of the theory of evolution by natural selection.
    Wallace
  93. Grasshoppers grown in a hot environment tend to produce less body pigment. This is presumably an adaptation to modify heat gain by reducing:
    Hr.
  94. Which of the following statements about climate is false? a. It can change quickly in areas like Minnesota where air temperature can vary by 50F in
    24 hours.
    b. It is a measure of average atmospheric conditions for a certain time of year. c. It is relatively easy to predict, year to year, for a certain latitude. d. It strongly determines biome distribution. e. It is influenced by proximity to oceans and mountains.
    • It can change quickly in areas like Minnesota where air temperature can vary by 50ÔÇ∞F in
    • 24 hours.
  95. In which of the following photosynthetic pathways is carbon first fixed as a 4-carbon molecule? a. C3 b. C4
    c. CAM
    d. b and c
    e. a and b
    b and c
  96. All of the following characteristics are associated with a desert biome except: a. succulent plants. b. animals commonly using evaporation as a means to reduce body temperature. c. little or no organic soil.
    d. 30o N and S latitude. e. nocturnally active mammals
    animals commonly using evaporation as a means to reduce body temperature
  97. . Which of the following gradients commonly occurs in rivers from headwaters to outlet? a. Water temperatures decrease. b. In-river photosynthesis decreases. c. Fish composition shifts from warm-water to cool-water species.
    d. Food shifts from mainly course to mainly fine particulate organic matter.
    e. None of the above.
    . Food shifts from mainly course to mainly fine particulate organic matter
  98. If the heritability of a trait is 40-50%, it means tha
    • of the phenotypic variation in the trait in a population, 40-50% is determined by
    • genetic variation.
  99. All of the following characteristics are associated with a tropical rain forest biome except:
    a. low species diversity.
    b. wet all year. c. equatorial. d. buttressed tree trunks. e. abundant epiphytes.
    low species diversity
  100. . During summer stratification, aquatic organisms will find the coolest water in the
    hypolimnion
  101. Solar input to the northern hemisphere is greater in summer than winter during each daylight hour mainly because:
    b. sun angles are more direct (closer to perpendicular) in the summer
  102. The most productive blue ocean habitat is associated with the continental shelf in a region called the
    neritic
  103. Viscosity associated with hydrogen bonding and the boundary layer in aquatic habitats is most significant at hindering locomotion at low Reynolds numbers. This tends to be the case for organisms that are
    small and slow moving
  104. Which of the following is not a tenet of natural selection? a. Organisms beget ‘like’ organisms (inheritance). b. Parents produce excess offspring. c. There is differential survival and reproduction in offspring. d. Individuals and populations evolve.
    e. Inheritable variation is present among conspecifics.
    Individuals and populations evolve
  105. Which of the following statements about reef-building corals is false? a. They create the reef rock. b. They require temperatures of about 5o to 10o C. c. They are symbioses between cnidarians and algae.
    d. They photosynthesize and are thus limited to shallow depths. e. They generally live at latitudes between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of
    Capricorn.
    They require temperatures of about 5o to 10o C
  106. The maximum density of water is closest to _____ C and therefore ice floats, and most of the environment of a lake is liquid water and thus inhabitable by organisms in the winter.
    d. 4°
  107. 22. Which of the following conditions must be satisfied in order for the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium to predict the correct distribution of genotypes among offspring? a. No natural selection. b. No genetic drift.
    c. No immigration. d. Random mating. e. All of the above.
    All of the above.
  108. In the kargaroo rat which lives in very dry conditions, which of the following is not a feature of its biology. a. Uses subterranian burrows during the day to avoid excessive heat. b. Has extensive nasal passages to reabsorb water vapor in exhaled air.
    c. Excretes watery urine and wet fecal material.
    d. Is able to satisfy most of its water demand by oxidation of food. e. b and d.
    Excretes watery urine and wet fecal materia
  109. Which of the following statements about soil is false? a. There are 5 basic horizons. b. Soil organics are rapidly decomposed by bacteria in a Tropical Rain Forest biome. c. R refers to bedrock. d. Soil is a mixture of living and nonliving materials. e. Organic content generally increases from shallow to deep
    Organic content generally increases from shallow to deep
  110. Ecology is best defined as the scientific study of the relationships between _______________ and ________________
    organisms, the environment
  111. An isosmotic condition is achieved, or nearly achieved, in
    echinoderms and sharks
  112. Which of the following statements about climate is false?
    a. It can change quickly in areas like Minnesota where air temperature can vary by 50F in
    24 hours.
    b. It is a measure of average atmospheric conditions for a certain time of year. c. It is relatively easy to predict, year to year, for a certain latitude. d. It strongly determines biome distribution. e. It is influenced by proximity to oceans and mountains.
    • It can change quickly in areas like Minnesota where air temperature can vary by 50ÔÇ∞F in
    • 24 hours.
  113. All of the following characteristics are associated with a desert biome except: a. succulent plants. b. animals commonly using evaporation as a means to reduce body temperature. c. little or no organic soil.
    d. 30o N and S latitude. e. nocturnally active mammals.
    b. animals commonly using evaporation as a means to reduce body temperature
  114. All of the following characteristics are associated with a tropical rain forest biome except:
    a. low species diversity.
    b. wet all year. c. equatorial. d. buttressed tree trunks. e. abundant epiphytes.
    low species diversity
  115. During summer stratification, aquatic organisms will find the coolest water in the
    hypolimnion
  116. Solar input to the northern hemisphere is greater in summer than winter during each daylight hour mainly because:
    b. sun angles are more direct (closer to perpendicular) in the summer
  117. The most productive blue ocean habitat is associated with the continental shelf in a region called the:
    neritic
  118. Viscosity associated with hydrogen bonding and the boundary layer in aquatic habitats is most significant at hindering locomotion at low Reynolds numbers. This tends to be the case for organisms that are:
    small and slow moving.
  119. Which of the following is not a tenet of natural selection? a. Organisms beget ‘like’ organisms (inheritance). b. Parents produce excess offspring. c. There is differential survival and reproduction in offspring. d. Individuals and populations evolve.
    e. Inheritable variation is present among conspecifics.
    Individuals and populations evolve
  120. Which of the following statements about reef-building corals is false? a. They create the reef rock. b. They require temperatures of about 5o to 10o C. c. They are symbioses between cnidarians and algae.
    d. They photosynthesize and are thus limited to shallow depths. e. They generally live at latitudes between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of
    Capricorn.
    They require temperatures of about 5o to 10o C
  121. The maximum density of water is closest to _____ C and therefore ice floats, and most of the environment of a lake is liquid water and thus inhabitable by organisms in the winter.
  122. Which of the following conditions must be satisfied in order for the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium to predict the correct distribution of genotypes among offspring? a. No natural selection. b. No genetic drift.
    c. No immigration. d. Random mating. e. All of the above.
    All of the above.
  123. In the kargaroo rat which lives in very dry conditions, which of the following is not a feature of its biology. a. Uses subterranian burrows during the day to avoid excessive heat. b. Has extensive nasal passages to reabsorb water vapor in exhaled air.
    c. Excretes watery urine and wet fecal material.
    d. Is able to satisfy most of its water demand by oxidation of food. e. b and d.
    c. Excretes watery urine and wet fecal material
  124. Which of the following statements about soil is false? a. There are 5 basic horizons. b. Soil organics are rapidly decomposed by bacteria in a Tropical Rain Forest biome. c. R refers to bedrock. d. Soil is a mixture of living and nonliving materials. e. Organic content generally increases from shallow to deep.
    Organic content generally increases from shallow to deep.
  125. In a transplant experiment where you move several organisms of the same species to an area previously unoccupied, you find that the organisms survive. Which of the following conclusions is NOT reasonable?a. The organisms had previously chosen not to inhabit the area.
    b. The organisms had been prevented by some sort of barrier from dispersing to the area. c. Not enough time had elapsed to permit the species to disperse to the area. d. Physical and chemical conditions in the area had prevented the organism from surviving. e. b and c
    Physical and chemical conditions in the area had prevented the organism from surviving.
  126. Which of the following is an example of aggressive mimicry?
    a. Sabre-toothed blenny mimics coloration and behavior of a cleaner wrasse.
    b. Tree hopper resembles thorns on the stem of a rosebush. c. Viceroy butterfly mimics the coloration pattern of the Monarch butterfly. d. Looper inchworm resembles a branch in coloration and rigidity. e. Butterfly fish has an eyespot on the tail that mimics its true eye
    Sabre-toothed blenny mimics coloration and behavior of a cleaner wrasse
  127. The annual growth rate of the human population on earth peaked in the _______, and has been decreasing ever since.
    1960s
  128. In the logistic growth model, the expression ((K-N)/K) represents
    the effect of intraspecific competition on population growth.
  129. In the equation dNpred/dt = c*p*Nprey*Npred – d*Npred, the term c represents the
    conversion rate of prey into predator
  130. Lynx and hare densities in the boreal forest cycle on roughly a decadal time scale. What factor is most responsible for the peak density reached by hare during each cycle?
    An interaction in the combined effect of food density and mammalian predator density
  131. Which of the following statements is FALSE? a. In crypsis mimicry, either an animal changes its color to fit the background or the animal searches for a background which matches its coloration. b. In crypsis mimicry, the adaptation of crypsis has to be a perfect match to the surroundings to afford any protection at all. c. Mimicry is reasonably defined as a situation where an organism pretends to be something else to deceive members of another species or its own species. d. Batesian mimicry is named after the English naturalist H.W. Bates who described the phenomenon. e. The bumblebee moth from North America is a good example of Batesian mimicry.
    In crypsis mimicry, the adaptation of crypsis has to be a perfect match to the surroundings to afford any protection at all.
  132. _____________ competitive ability, _______________ offspring, and ________________ development are generally associated with an r-selected life-history strategy.
    Not strongly favored, many small, rapid
  133. Resources:
    are consumed by an organism
  134. In the Lotka-Volterra competition equation, dN2/dt = r2N2
    the per capita competitive effect of species 1 on species 2.
  135. The winning species in a competitive interaction:
    can survive and reproduce on less of the limiting resource per individual.
  136. Within the first two years of the initial infection of Myxoma into the rabbit population in Australia, the death toll among rabbits declined, and the number of healthy rabbits began to rise because: a. natural selection lead to increased numbers of resistant rabbits. b. the virulence grade of Myxoma quickly declined from grade I to grades II, III and IV.
    c. the mosquito vector declined in abundance.
    d. a and b
    e. b and c
    a and b
  137. Which of the following regarding K for humans on earth is FALSE? a. Estimates during the past couple of centuries have ranged from 1 billion to 1000 billion. b. There is probably no limit to K. c. It will likely depend in part on opportunities set by technology. d. It will likely depend in part on choices set by cultures and values. e. It will likely depend in part on constraints set by natural resources.
    There is probably no limit to K.
  138. Examples of mimicry are known in which a species has evolved to resemble another species’: a. sound. b. physical appearance. c. behavior.
    d. scent.
    e. all of the above
    all of the above
  139. Which of the following associations is CORRECT? a. Catch per unit effort fish data : Estimate of absolute density. b. Pelt record counts as with lynx and hare in Canada a century ago : Estimate of absolute density. c. Hawk Ridge bird count data : Estimate of relative density. d. Quadrat sampling data : Estimate of relative density. e. None of the above is correct.
    . Hawk Ridge bird count data : Estimate of relative density.
  140. In regions of the world where the malaria parasite (Plasmodium) and its associated mosquito vector are common, the regional incidence of sickle-cell anemia:
    is high because the mutant gene in a single dose provides some resistance to malaria, so the gene is maintained in the population.
  141. According to the video that you watched entitled “Race to Save the Planet”, early attempts at sedentary lifestyles:a. were always successful. b. lead to increased birth rates per female.
    c. were prompted by climate changes that reduced precipitation.
    d. b and c
    e. a, b and c
    b and c
  142. In the basic model of population growth (Nfuture = Npresent + B – D + I – E), the terms B
    and E represen
    Birth and Emigration.
  143. The four main factors responsible for a population’s distribution include all of the following EXCEPT: a. physical and chemical factors. b. behavior.
    c. other species.
    d. birth rates.
    e. dispersal.
    birth rates.
  144. The capture-recapture method of density estimation is well suited for:
    mobile, secretive organisms like bats.
  145. Parasitism is best defined as an interaction between species where:
    one species depends metabolically on another species causing harm to it but not necessarily death.
  146. The carrying capacity of a population is: a. the same from one habitat to the next. b. set by environmental limits. c. the maximum sustainable N of a population. d. a and b
    e. b and c
    b and c

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