Chem 111 Final

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medic11
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152701
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Chem 111 Final
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2012-05-07 21:07:17
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HCC Chem 111
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Final Exam cards
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  1. How many sig figs in 0.0300?
    3
  2. How many sig figs in 1600km?
    2
  3. 6.3 cm X 2.5 cm = ?
    19 cm2
  4. 65.4g - 64.311g = ?
    1.1g
  5. What is vol of block: 2.0cm by 3.0cm by 4.0cm?
    24 cm cubed
  6. What is the mass of 19 mL of Al (density = 2.7 g/cm3)?
    51g
  7. 92mL is the same as (92L, 92 cubic cm, 92 cm or 0.092 cubic cm)?
    92 cubic cm
  8. Which of these is a homogeneous mixture? a)milk b)water c)NaCl d)Norm Saline
    Normal Saline
  9. Which of these is a chemical change? a) breaking glass b)cutting grass c)frying an egg
    Frying an egg
  10. Which particle of an atom has no charge?
    Neutron
  11. The number of neutrons in ¹⁷₈O²⁻ ion is ____
    9
  12. Which type of electron magnetic radiation has the most energy - blue light / UV light / red light / infared light?
    UV light
  13. Different isotopes of the SAME element have different a) # of p+ & e- b) masses & #s of n c)#s of p+ & n d) masses & #s of p+)?
    Masses & Numbers of Neutrons
  14. To be an atom or ion of magnesium there MUST be ____ protons.
    12
  15. When an atom of copper is heated and a blue color is seen (A) its p+ jump to higher energy levels & return to lower levels (B) its n jump to higher energy levels & return to lower levels (C) its e- jump to higher energy levels & return to lower levels
    Its e- jump to higher energy levels & return to lower levels
  16. Which element is found in fluorescent light bulbs?
    Mercury
  17. For the element sulfur (S) there are how many valence electrons?
    6
  18. The element sulfur will most likely form an ion with what charge?
    -2
  19. When an atom of sulfur forms an ion it will be isoelectronic with ____.
    Ar
  20. Cl, Ne, O, or Ar will have the same # of valence e⁻ as sulfur.
    O
  21. Kr, K, Ba or Br is a noble gas.
    Kr
  22. Which of these elements has the biggest atoms: Na, Cl or Rb?
    Rb
  23. Which of these elements has the greatest electronegativity: Na, Cl or Rb?
    Cl
  24. For atoms of elements, in general, the smaller the atom the ______ the electronegativity.
    Larger
  25. Which of these will have the e⁻ config 1s² 2s² 2p⁶? (A) Ne (B) F¹⁻ (C) Na¹⁺ (D) all of these
    All of these
  26. What is std scientific notation for 75,000?
    7.5x10⁴
  27. What is std scientific notation for 0.04090?
    4.090x10⁻²
  28. What is the formula for the density of an object?
    d=m/v
  29. What is the formula for specific gravity?
    SG= d of object / d of H₂O
  30. 1 inch = ____ cm
    2.54
  31. 1 meter = ____ cm
    100
  32. Calculate the atomic mass of naturally occurring Cl if 75.77% of Cl atoms are Chlorine-35 (mass of 35.00) & 24.23% is Chlorine-37 (mass of 37.00).
    35.49 amu
  33. ⁰K = ?
    ⁰C + 273
  34. ⁰F = ?
    1.8 ⁰C + 32
  35. An atom of ¹⁵₇N has how many protons? Neutrons? Electrons? Atomic #? Mass #?
    • 7 p⁺
    • 7e⁻
    • 8n
    • Atomic # = 7
    • Mass # = 15
  36. What is the formula for Calcium Hydroxide?
    Ca(OH)₂
  37. What is precision?
    Degree of agreement between repeated measurements
  38. What is accuracy?
    How close you are to the right answer
  39. What is a heterogeneous mixture?
    • Oil+Water
    • Salt+pepper
  40. What is ionization energy?
    Energy needed to remove an electron fr an isolated atom
  41. Describe electron affinity.
    Energy released when a single e⁻ is added to an isolated atom
  42. As you go down a grp electronegativity ____.
    Decreases
  43. As you read across a period electronegativity _____.
    Increases
  44. Affinity ______ as you go down a grp.
    Decreases
  45. Affinity ____ as you go across a period.
    Increases
  46. Atomic size increases going from ____ to ____.
    top to bottom
  47. Atomic size decreases going from ____ to ____.
    left to right
  48. 1 mole of atoms is equal to _____ atoms?
    • Avagadro's #
    • 6.022x10²³ atoms
  49. What is formula for % yield?
    actual / theoretical X x% / 100
  50. What determines if an atom is polar?
    • If there is a e⁻ pr on the central atom
    • Lewis structure is out of balance
  51. What is the idea gas law?
    PV=nRT
  52. What is the formula for Boyle's Law?
    P₁V₁ = P₂V₂
  53. What is formula for Charle's Law?
    V₁ / T₁ = V₂ / T₂
  54. What is the formula for the combined gas law?
    P₁V₁ / T₁ = P₂V₂ / T₂
  55. What is 1 mole of any gas at STP equal to?
    22.4L
  56. At STP P=? T=?
    • P= 760mmHg or 1 torr
    • T= 0⁰ C or 273K
  57. What causes pressure?
    Atoms or molecules bouncing off the walls of the container
  58. Describe Dalton's law.
    All mater made up of tiny particles or atoms
  59. Describe an ionic bond.
    • Transfer of e⁻ to form ionic compound
    • Usually metal & nonmetal
    • Nonmetals gain e⁻
  60. If an atom has 3 bonded atoms & 0 non bonding prs e⁻ the structure will be ____.
    Trigonal Planer
  61. If an atom has 2 bonded atoms & 0 non bonding prs e⁻ the structure will be ____.
    Linear
  62. If an atom has 2 bonded atoms & 1 non bonding prs e⁻ the structure will be ____.
    Angular
  63. If an atom has 4 bonded atoms & 0 non bonding prs e⁻ the structure will be ____.
    Tetraherdal
  64. If an atom has 3 bonded atoms & 1 non bonding prs e⁻ the structure will be ____.
    Trigonal Pyramidal
  65. If an atom has 2 bonded atoms & 2 non bonding prs e⁻ the structure will be ____.
    Angular
  66. What is the mass of 1 mole of oxygen?
    16.0g
  67. How many moles of carbon is 24.0 g?
    2.00 moles
  68. How may moles of water are 1.204x10²³ molecules of H₂O?
    0.200 moles
  69. After balancing N₂ + H₂ ---> NH₃ what # will be ifo H₂?
    3
  70. At what temp is the kinetic energy of molecules be "0"?
    0 K
  71. What happens to the vol of 1 mol of an ideal gas when the pressure is raised fr 4.00 atm to 8.00 atm @ constant temp?
    Vol decreases to 1/2 original vol
  72. What happens to the vol of 1 mole of an idea gas when temp is raised fr 40⁰ C to 80⁰ C @ constant pressure?
    Vol increases by sm amt
  73. What will vol of 28.0g of N₂ gas be @ STP?
    22.4 L
  74. What is formula for nitrogen dioxide?
    NO₂
  75. Describe a solution.
    Homogeneous mixture
  76. Describe a colloidal suspension.
    • Heterogeneous mixture
    • lg particles
  77. Describe a suspension.
    Particles so lg they settle out
  78. What is the universal solvent?
    Water
  79. Electrolytes are formed from what?
    Solutes soluable in ionic compounds
  80. Describe non-electrolytes.
    Formed fr non disociating molecular solutes
  81. When a solid is placed in a liquid, as temp increased solubility does what?
    Increases
  82. What a gas is in H₂O as temp decreases solubility ____.
    increases
  83. Pressure has what effect on a solid in a liquid?
    Very Little
  84. Pressure has what effect on a gas in a liquid?
    increase P = increase Solubility
  85. What is osmosis?
    Mvmt of solvent fr dilute solution to more concentrated solution thru semi-permiable membrane
  86. What is osmotic pressure?
    Pressure needed to stop osmosis
  87. What is the formula for osmotic pressure?
    • osmotic P = MRT
    • M= molarity
    • R= constant
    • T= temp in K
  88. What is the formula for concentration?
    Amt of solute / Amt of solvent
  89. Molarity = ?
    Mol of solute / L of solution
  90. What are 5 ways to increase reaction rate?
    • Inc temp
    • Inc surface area
    • Add catalyst
    • Inc concen of reactants
    • Change nature of reactants
  91. Describe a hypotonic solution.
    • Lower concentration outside cell than inside
    • Water moves in causing hemolysis
  92. Hemolysis is caused by what?
    • Water moving into a cell causing it to expand beyond its capacity
    • Hypotonic solution
  93. Describe a a hypertonic solution.
    • Higher concentration outside cell than inside
    • Water moves out causing crenation
  94. What is crenation?
    Cells shrivelling up caused by water moving out in a hypertonic solution
  95. What is an isotonic solution?
    One where concentrations inside & outside the cells are equal
  96. What is the formula for the equilibrium constant?
    Keq = [C] x [D] (products) over [A] x [B] (reactants)
  97. When the Keq < 1 _____ are favored.
    reactants
  98. When the Keq >1 ____ are favored.
    products
  99. LeChatelier's Principle states . . . .
    If a stress is placed on a sys in equilibrium the reaction will shift in a direction that lessens the stress
  100. Name 3 strong acids.
    • Hydrochloric - HCl
    • Sulfuric - H₂SO₄
    • Nitric - HNO₃
  101. Name the 3 strong bases.
    • NaOH
    • KOH
    • Ca(OH)₂
  102. What are are 3 weak acids?
    • HC₂H₃O₂ - Acetic acid
    • NH₄¹⁺
    • H₂CO₃ - Carbonic Acid
  103. Name a weak base.
    NH₃
  104. According to Bronsted Lowry an acid is an ______ & a base is an ______.
    • H⁺ / proton donor
    • H⁺ / proton acceptor
  105. H₃O⁺ is aka ____ ion.
    Hydronium
  106. What is a conjugate acid/base pair?
    A weak acid & the base that is left after the acid loses its H⁺
  107. Define pH.
    Degree of acidity or basicity of a solution
  108. What is the equation pH is equal too?
    -log [H₃O⁺]
  109. What is the equation for the pOH?
    -log [OH⁻]
  110. How do we get H⁺ fr pH?
    anti log of the neg of pH
  111. [H₃O⁺] [OH⁻] = ?
    1.0x10⁻¹⁴
  112. What is the normal pH of blood?
    7.35 - 7.45
  113. What is the equation for a neutralization reaction?
    V(acid) x M(acid) = V(base) x M(base)
  114. Explain buffer solution.
    Solutions containing components that enable the solution to somehow resist lg changes in pH when either an acid or base is added
  115. What is the easiest way to achieve a buffer solution?
    Add equal parts of a weak acid & its conjugate base
  116. When a substance is oxidized it ____ ____.
    • Loses e⁻
    • LEO - Losing Electrons Oxidation
  117. When a substance is reduced it ____ ____.
    • Gains e⁻
    • GER - Gaining Electrons Reduction
  118. The reducing agent is . . . .
    That which causes something to be reduced
  119. The oxidizing agent is . . . .
    That which is reduced
  120. Define nuclear radiation (radioactivity).
    Process by which atoms emit energetic particles or rays fr the nucleus
  121. What is the charge & mass of an alpha particle?
    • 2+
    • 4 amu
  122. What is speed & symbol of an alpha particle?
    • 5-10% speed of light
    • ⁴₂He²⁺
  123. What is the charge & mass of an beta particle?
    • 1-
    • ≈0 amu
  124. What is the charge & mass of an gamma particle?
    • 0
    • 0 amu
  125. What is speed & symbol of an beta particle?
    • up to 90% speed of light
    • ⁰₋₁e
  126. What is speed & symbol of an gamma particle?
    • Speed of light
    • Bird like ϒ
  127. What is a positron?
    • Positive electron (antimatter)
    • ⁰₁e
  128. Half-life is defined as . . . .
    Time required for 1/2 of a given quantity of a substance to undergo change
  129. Different isotopes of the same element always have the same # of ____ but different #s of ____.
    Protons, Neutrons
  130. The # of protons & neutrons in ¹⁷₈O is . . . .
    8p, 9n
  131. When ²³⁴Th loses a beta particle, the resulting nuclear particle is ____.
    ²³⁴Pa
  132. If ΔH is negative a reaction is (exothermic, endothermic)?
    Exothermic
  133. If ΔH is positive a reaction is (exothermic, endothermic)?
    Endothermic
  134. In acid, Litmus Paper turns what color?
    Pink
  135. In base, Litmus Paper turns what color?
    Blue
  136. What are colligative properties of a solution?
    Properties that are concentration dependent
  137. Steam fr a kettle hitting your hand & condensing is an (exo, endo) reaction?
    Exothermic
  138. The demonstration where we mixed 2 white powders in a flask & it stuck to the wooden block was an (exo, endo) reaction?
    endothermic
  139. When a reaction has more potential energy at the beginning than the end is an _____ reaction.
    exothermic
  140. What does adding a catalyst change on a reaction graph?
    Activated complex
  141. As concentration increases freezing point ____.
    decreases
  142. As concentration increases boiling point _____.
    increases
  143. As concentration increases osmotic pressure _____.
    Increases
  144. Molarity is equal to ______.
    moles of solute / L of solution
  145. Osmotic pressure is equal to ____.
    π = MRT

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