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  1. Management in the level of bacteria begins with
    reducing the numbers of bacteria naturally present in/on the animal
  2. Pre-harvest intervention strategies
    • alteration of ruminal environment
    • direct-fed microbials: probiotics
    • vaccinations
  3. What does GMPs and SOPs stand for?
    • Good Manufacturing Practices
    • Standard Operating Procedures
  4. What are GMPs and SOPs?
    practices and procedures implemented by a processing facility to assure overall product safety
  5. Examples of GMPs
    • employee training
    • building design
    • production parameters
    • process controls
  6. what is Sanitation?
    steps taken pre and post operation to prevent direct contamination or adulteration
  7. steps for the ideal cleaning program
    • Clearance for cleaning
    • assembling for cleaning
    • removal of solid waste
    • pre-rinsing with water
    • application of detergent
    • rinsing
    • disinfection
    • post rinsing
    • post treatment
    • disassembling after cleaning
  8. what is the most important step in an ideal cleaning program?
  9. what is a disadvantage of non-chemical disinfection?
    cost and the risk of insufficient heating
  10. A disadvantage of chlorine disinfection
    corrosion to metals
  11. advantage and disadvantage of quaternary ammonium compounds
    • Most effective on gram-positive bacteria
    • more expensive than chlorine
  12. HACCP is defined as
    management systems in which food safety is addressed through the analysis and control of biological, chemical, and physical hazards from raw material production
  13. Interventions during harvest
    • hide wash
    • pre-evisceration wash
    • trimming - visible contamination > 1in2
    • steam vacuum - removes all other visible contamination
    • steam pasteurization
    • carcass wash/spray - hot water, organic acids, acidified sodium chlorite, lactic acid bacteria
  14. Cold carcass or Subprimal interventions
    prevention of cross contamination from environmental, equipment, and employee vectors
  15. Sausage is derived from the greek word _____ meaning salted or preserved
  16. SSHCPs
    salt soluble heat coagulable proteins
  17. common meat proteins that are salt soluble and heat coagu.
    actin, myosin, actomyosin
  18. SSHCP means the proteins are capable of
    being extracted in a weak salt solution and will coagulate and harden into a matrix upon heating
  19. the binding index of SSHCPs is
  20. Animal tissues with a binding idex of 50 or greater are termed
  21. Tissues with a binding index lower than 50 are termed
  22. In an emulsion fat serves as the _____ phase and water as the _____ phase
    dispersed, continuous
  23. The polar portions of SSHCPs project out from the fat and prevents
    the fat from blending together and fatting-out during cooking
  24. measures relative amount of myoglobin
    color index
  25. other meat properties which influence sausage formation
    color index and moisure: protein ratio
  26. Steps of sausage processing
    • Coarse grind
    • mixing
    • chopping
    • fine grinding
    • stuffing
  27. What is the purpose of mixing
    uniform distribution of fat and lean, and it aids in extraction and coating of fat particles with salt soluble proteins
  28. Chopping is used for
    greater particle size reduction and greater emulsification
  29. Fine grinding
    particle size reduction and further extraction of SSHCP
  30. Benefit of natural casings
    easily digestible and permeable to moisture and smoke
  31. Three types of artificial casings
    Fibrous, collagen, and plastic
  32. artificial casings are made from
    cotton linters, paper pulp, and beef hides
  33. Used in summer sausages
    Fibrous casings
  34. Used in dry sausages
    collagen casings
  35. Used in cooked sausages that are water cooked
    plastic casings
  36. Cured sausages are heated to internal temperature to stabilize
  37. USDA sausage classifications
    • 1. Fresh
    • 2. Uncooked Smoked
    • 3. Cooked and Smoked
    • 4. Cooked
    • 5. Fermented - Dry & Semi dry
    • 6. Luncheon meats, loaves and jellied
  38. An example of Uncooked smoked sausage
  39. An example of cooked and smoked
    frankfurter, summer sausage
  40. example of cooked sausage
    liver sausage
  41. example of fermented sausage
  42. emulsified sausages (hot dogs) require
    very small particle size (batter)
  43. Meat processing includes:
    curing, smoking, canning, cooking, freezing,dehydration, production of intermediate-moisture products, and the use of additivessuch as chemicals and enzymes.
  44. what is curing?
    addition of salt, sugar, and nitrite or nitrate to meats for purpose ofpreservation, flavor enhancement, or color development.
  45. Other functions of curing
    • – Shelf life extension
    • – Development of unique properties
    • – Resistance to rapid deterioration
    • – Controlling microbial growth
  46. Commonly cured meats
    • Hams (boneless, bone-in, section & formed, restructured)• Deli and luncheon meats (hams, roast beef, turkey, etc.)• Sausages (pastrami, pepperoni, chorizo, frankfurters, etc.)• Corned Beef• Jerky• Bacon
  47. Purpose of salt during curing
    • –Adds flavor (major effect)
    • –Acts as a preservativeinhibits growth of microorganisms
    • –Enhances the transport of other cure ingredients
  48. The purpose of sugar
    • counteracts the salt flavor
    • colors product (brown sugar)
    • provides energy for bacteria during fermentation
  49. Nitrates or Nitrites are responsible for
    cured -pink color
  50. Commercial name for Sodium Nitritre
    Prague Powder
  51. Nitrate can only be used in
    dried cured meats or sausages
  52. maximum ingoing level of nitrite in bacon
    120 ppm
  53. maximum ingoing nitrite in ham
    200 ppm
  54. Basic cure reaction
    Deoxymyoglobin + Nitric Oxide = Nitric Oxide myoglobin (red)
  55. Nitric oxide reaction
    NaNO(2or3) to HONO (nitrous acid) to NO
  56. Color must be fixed by heating to
    140 degrees
  57. _____ is responsible for stable cured pink color
  58. Ascorbates
    • –Catalyze conversion of nitrite to nitric oxide
    • –Inhibit nitrosamine formation
    • –Maintains color
  59. Phosphates help with
    water retention
  60. alkaline phosphate
    – Gives more stable color reduces oxidation– Protects against browning
  61. Phosphate types
    Sodium Hexametaphophate– Sodium pyrophosphate– Sodium triphosphate
  62. Cure accelerator in hams and sausages
    Glucono delta lactone
  63. Potassium Sorbate
    Antimicrobial– Smoke– Liquid or wood– Water– Carries all other ingredients and adds juiciness
  64. slow process that produces characteristic flavor, can result in bone sour in hams
    dry cure
  65. Immerse in water solution containing cure ingredients•Water added to the product approximately 5% of final weight is water•High moisture content provides medium for yeast and mold growth•Seldom used because of expense
    cover pickle cure
  66. insures rapid penetration and dispersion of curing ingredients.
    injection curing
  67. 3 types of injection curing
    • Stitch or spray pumping - Cure directly injected into meat with handheld needles
    • Artery Pumping - Accomplishes best possible distribution of cure - Cure dispersed via capillaries
    • Machine Injection - Most commercial facilities use
  68. Function of Massaging and Tumbling
    – Disruption of Tissue Structure– Hastening of Cure-Ingredient Distribution– Solubilization of muscle proteins
  69. Massaging
    Relies on frictional energy– Minimizes the tearing of muscles– Minimizes particle size reduction
  70. Tumbling
    Relies on impact energy– Extracts myofibrillar proteins
  71. The method for calculating added water in hams is based on the
    protein fat-free method
  72. Purpose of smoking meat
    • 1. Development of Aroma and Flavor
    • 2. Preservation
    • 3. Creation of new products (value adding)
    • 4. Color development
    • 5. Protection from oxidation
    • 6. Formation of skins
  73. Composition of smoke
    • Phenols– Aroma and Flavor, antioxidant
    • Alcohols– Act as carrier of other components
    • Organic acids– Skin formation, preservation
    • Carbonyls– Color and Flavor
    • Hydrocarbons– Undesirable, carcinogens
    • Gases– CO2, CO, O2, N2, H2O etc.
  74. consists of parts that are 2-3 micrometers in size - tars,soot, charcoal, and resins
    Dispersed phase
  75. Not visible, consists of phenols, acids, and carbonylcompounds
    Gaseous phase
  76. Benefits of smoking
    Flavor and Odor Enhancement– Color Development on Outside of Product– Preservation of the product
  77. Liquid smoke
    Low to no carcinogens– Shorter cook/run time– Lower pollution– Wood combustion products dissolved in water– Cheaper and quicker than the smokehouse process
Card Set:
2012-05-07 17:42:20

meatlab exam2
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