Chapter 19, Pneumonia

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Chapter 19, Pneumonia
2012-05-10 14:42:33
Chapter 19 Pneumonia

Chapter 19, Pneumonia
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  1. acute infection of lung with impairment of gas exchange
  2. What are the 3 ways pneumonia can be classified
    • origin
    • location
    • type
  3. What can be the causitive microbial agents of pneumonia
    • viral
    • bacterial
    • fungal
    • protozoal
  4. Which microbial pneumonia is more common in children 2-3 yrs old
  5. Which microbial pneumonia is more common as a complication of influenza or the common cold
  6. Which microbial pneumonia is more common in school aged children
    mycoplasma pneumonia
  7. What are the 3 location types of pneumonia
    • bronchopneumonia(involves alevoil)
    • lobular pneumonia- part of a lung lobe
    • lobar pneumonia- entire lung lobe
  8. What causes primary pneumonia
    inhalation of the pathogen
  9. What causes secondary pneumonia
    • lung damage from noxious chemical
    • bloodborne infection
    • aspiration pneumonia(aspirating foreign matter)
  10. What is the causitive agent of lobar pneumonia
    • Streptococcus pneumoniae
    • aka pneumococcus
  11. Describe Streptococcus pneumoniae
    • gram-positive
    • diplococci, small chains
    • polysaccharide capsule
    • 90 serological different types
  12. describe the virulence of Streptococcus pneumoniae
    capsule prevents/delays phaygocytosis
  13. What is the pathophysiology of lobar pneumonia
    • S. pneumoniae colonizes in nasopharynx
    • 1st stage= congestion of alveolar wall
    • eventually consolidation in lungs
  14. Describe the onset of lobar pneumonia
    sudden and acute
  15. What are the signs of lobar pneumonia
    • high fever
    • rusty sputum
    • rales leading to consolidation
  16. What is the treatment for lobar pneumonia
  17. How can you prevent lobar pneumonia
    23-valent pneumococcal vaccine
  18. describe the distribution of bronchopneumonia
    • scattered
    • more than 1 lobe
    • often lower lobes
  19. what is the causitive agent of bronchopneumonia
    • multiple bacteria
    • result of drainage from URT into lungs
  20. which pneumonia is a hazard to immobilized patients
  21. What is the pathophysiology of bronchopneumonia
    • inflammation & purulent exudate in alveoli
    • often arising from pooled secreations or irritation
  22. Describe the onset of bronchopneumonia
  23. What are the signs of bronchopneumonia
    • mild fever
    • yellow-green sputum
    • Dyspena
  24. What is the treatment for bronchopneumonia
    antibacterial dependant on causitive bacteria
  25. pnuemonia with patchy inflammatory changes in lungs, confined to alveolar septa and pulmonary interstitium
    interstitial pnuemonia/primary atypical/PAP/walking pnuemonia
  26. What is the causitive agent in interstitial pnuemonia
    influenza A or B virus or mycoplasma pnuemoniae(most common)
  27. describe mycoplasma pnuemoniae
    • small
    • pleomorphic
    • no cell wall= no gram stain
    • not highly contagious
    • droplets transmitt
  28. What is the pathophysiology of PAP pnuemonia
    • interstitial inflammation around alveoli
    • necrosis of bronchial epithelium
  29. describe the onset of interstitial pnuemonia
  30. what are the signs of PAP pnuemonia
    • fever
    • headache & muscle ache
    • nonproductive hacking cough
  31. what is the treatment for interstitial pnuemonia
    • Viral= antiviral, support respiratory function
    • Mycoplasma pnuemoniae= antibacterial meds like erythromycin or tetracycline
  32. how is interstitial pnuemnia diagnoised
    • chest x-ray
    • sputum
    • gram stain & C&S to identify causeitive agent
    • WBC-leukocytosis=bacterial
    • luekopenia or normal =viral
    • blood cultures with bacterium
    • ABG
    • bronchoscopy to collect sputun
  33. what are the complications with PAP
    • hypoxemia
    • respiratory failure
    • bacterium
    • lung abscess
    • empyema
    • plueral effusion
  34. spread of infection into plueral cavity
  35. excess fluid in the plueral cavity
    plueral effusion
  36. what is the prognosis for interstitial pnuemonia
    • good for normal immune system
    • bacterial=leading death cause for debilitated patients
    • viral= poor due to cardiopulmonary collapse