The Six Base Cases of Russian Nouns
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The Nominative Case
Ex) Студент читает - The student is reading.
- This case answers the question "who" or "what". This is the inital form of a word. All dictionaries give nouns in hte nomative case.
- cтудент --> cтудент (no change)
The Genitive Case
Ex) берег реки - the bank of the river
- This case is used to show that something (somebody) belongs or refers to something (somebody). It can be translated by "of" in English.
- река --> реки (the ending -a becomes -и)
The Dative Case
Ex) Я иду к врачу - I go to the doctor
Ex) Я даю это другу - I give it to the friend
- This designates that something is given or addressed to the person (object).
- врач --> врачу (the ending -у is added)
- друг --> другу
The Accusative Case
Ex) Я читаю газету - I read the newspaper
Ex) Я встретил друга - I met the friend
- This case designates the object of an action.
- газета --> газету (the ending -а becomes -у)
- друг --> друга (the ending -а is added)
The Instrumental Case
Ex) Я пишу карандашом - I write with a pencil
- This case is used to deonote an instrument that helps to make something.
- карандаш --> карандашом (the ending -ом is added)
The Prepositional Case
Ex) Она мечтает о лете - She dreams about the summer
Ex) Цветы стоят на столе - The flowers are on the table
- This case is used to designate a place, or a person (object) that is an object of speech and thought. This case is always used with a preposition.
- лето --> лете (the ending -о becomes -е)
- стол --> столе (the ending -е is added)
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